Kamil Kuca et al.
2013, 0 - 0
BINDING OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS TO ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS: POSSIBLE CHEMICAL WARFARE NERVE AGENTS
James C. Ball
2013, 2 - 24
Classical chemical nerve agents are organophosphate based compounds such as Sarin, Soman, Tabun, VX and others. These compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterases in the synapses of nerve junctions. Instead of inactivating acetylcholinesterases, compounds, quaternary amines, can block nerve transmission by binding primarily to the acetylcholine receptor sites. The U.S. Patent Office has published 23 unique patents or invention registrations on the synthesis of compounds that can bind to muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is likely that some of these compounds could serve as either polarizing or nonpolarizing nerve agents that bind to the acetylcholine receptor and block binding of acetylcholine. This paper has systematically reviewed a series of bisquaternary amines that could be potentially deadly nerve agents. Analogous tertiary amines, based on the structure of the parent bisquaternary amines, have been proposed as compounds that might be more soluble in membranes making them more bioavailable and toxic. Finally, methods have been discussed that could identify this class of compounds using a bioassay for binding to the acetylcholine receptor. A tool in the identification of these compounds, the Hofmann elimination reaction, has been proposed as a novel method for helping to establish that quaternary or tertiary amines are functional groups of the nerve agent.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TRANSABDOMINAL PREPERITONEAL APPROACH AND TOTAL EXTRAPERITONEAL APPROACH VERSUS OPEN REPAIR OF INGUINAL HERNIA
Radek Pohnan, Faye Rozwadowski, Leo Klein, Miroslav Ryska
2013, 25 - 31
Surgical repair of inguinal hernias is one of the most common surgical procedures performed. Since endoscopic inguinal hernia repair was first reported in 1990, the operation has been refined into an attractive alternative to open hernia repair for many patients and surgeons. Transabdominal preperitoneal approach (TAPP) and total extraperitoneal approach (TEP) are the most commonly used methods for miniinvasive inguinal hernia treatment. Employing the electronic databases MEDLINE, Pubmed and Ebscohost, these methods were compared with open techniques. Perioperative and postoperative complications, recurrent hernias and quality of life were evaluated. For patients with bilateral inguinal hernia or with recurrent inguinal hernia, endoscopic repair offers significant advantages over open techniques with regard to pain, recurrence risk and recovery. For unilateral primary hernias, either endoscopic or open tension - free repair with mesh can offer excellent and equivalent results.
Jiri Patocka, Georg Petroianu, Kamil Kuca
2013, 32 - 38
Brodifacoum, a commercially available, long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide, is a highly toxic compound. Structurally it is similar to warfarin, but it is many times more potent, with the ability to cause severe bleeding in humans. Most of the health hazards of brodifacoum are associated with accidental ingestion. Superwarfarin intoxication may have no signs or symptoms other than bleeding at various sites. Brodifacoum has the potential to be used as a chemical warfare agent because of its high potency and long duration of action.
2013, 39 - 40
Dear Sir, I would like to inform you, that, recently, scientific and educative effort of the Medical Corps of the Czech Armed Forces has achieved a significant result in the quality, deployability and sustainability process within field medical support area. Until 2010, all field military hospital units were certified according to the CREVAL scale considering deployability from logistic and military-operation aspects only. CREVAL scale has been omitting medical aspects, number of medical specialists and procedures for proper triage, treatment ...
2013, 41 - 43
The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) is an interdisciplinary council for resuscitation medicine and emergency medical care. The main goal of this organization is to save the life and on the basis of knowledge and experiences to ensure high quality of resuscitation available to all. Preparation, development and publication of resuscitation guidelines for Europe (Guidelines 2010 lastly), organization of courses for both, lay- and professional rescuers, and organization of congresses, are the key activities of the ERC. The program of this year´s Congress was built with the intention to promote new technologies (especially cooling, feedback device and e.g.new application for SmartPhone, designed for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) training ...
2013, 44 - 44
Dr. Vackova, resident of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic, passed away October 11, 2012 as a result of a long battle with serious illness. Dr. Vackova was born in Policka, Czech Republic in 1953. She went School of Nursing and Pharmaceutical Faculty in Hradec Kralove. After completing her degree she joined Department of Epidemiology, the Military Medical Research Institute in Hradec Kralove. All the time she successfully participated in research projects of the microbiological laboratory, e.g. the selective contamination GIT in immunosuppressed patients. She defended her doctoral thesis in the end of 1992. Dr. Vackova devoted to the European ...
Levent Kenar, Mesut Ortatatli
2013, 46 - 54
The deliberate use of chemical weapons has emerged as a significant threat especially in last decades, mainly after the terrorist attack on 11th September 2011, and the use of these agents in future wars and terror attacks still remains a realistic concern. Despite the existence of many conventions and aggreements like Chemical Weapons Convention and 1925 Geneva Protocol against the use of chem-bio weapons, they have been used in many wars and conflicts. From this point of view, other than civilian state hospitals, military hospitals should be aware and get prepared to manage the victims injured due to chemical weapons. Military hospitals must be prepared to give support to health care system as well as military troops in treating and preventing casualties resulting from chemical weapons. Moreover, military hospitals are required to possess protective suits, masks, antidotes and other drugs. This article summarizes some important aspects which might be useful not only for military hospitals but also for civilian hospitals and public health organizations.
SCREENING OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER PENETRATION USING THE IMMOBILIZED ARTIFICIAL MEMBRANE PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY AT THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PH
Jana Zdarova Karasova, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca
2013, 55 - 62
In this study, 21 structurally diverse drugs with examined central nervous system penetration were used for prediction of blood-brain barrier penetration using HPLC-UV instrument. Drugs’ chromatographic capacity factors were measured by the immobilized artificial membrane presented by phosphatidylcholine column. The correlation between chromatographic capacity factor, octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) and molecular polar surface area (PSA) were determined at the physiological pH. The correlation factor 0.6677 with respect to log P and 0.7199 in reference to PSA was assigned. The developed in vitro prediction method may be used as a screening tool for blood-brain barrier penetration of drugs with passive transport mechanism.
Andreas Zaugg, Julien Ducry, Christophe Curty
2013, 63 - 68
Even though the use of microreactors for synthesising classical chemical warfare agents or other compounds scheduled in the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention) has not been published to date, the new technology has attracted the attention of the organic chemistry group of SPIEZ LABORATORY. Studies of the group show that in a few areas and sectors of chemistry, microreactors can provide a good alternative to the batch procedure. In classic warfare chemistry however, the technology can bring no benefits, since many reactions pro-duce a solid and are thus entirely unsuitable for microreactors.
ANTHRAX COUNTER MEASURES 2013 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, ROYAL UNITED SERVICES INSTITUTE, LONDON, 4 FEBRUARY 2013
S.S. Vasan et al.
2013, 69 - 86
Anthrax is still a high threat biological agent, with historical precedence of potential terrorist use. While lack of human-to-human transmission may contain attacks in pockets, attacks can be multiple, coordinated and/or covert, therefore successful containment is heavily dependent on rapid identification after the smallest (possible) number of early cases, immediate and accurate statistical assessment of its geographic extent based on case histories, and a rapidly targeted prophylaxis strategy that considers both antibiotics and vaccine. Persistence of spores could lead to continued post-event threat, lack of guarantee that total decontamination has been achieved, fear of repeat attacks, concerns and disruptions to normal life, and tremendous loss to the economy. These considerations were among those that underpinned the recent ‘Anthrax Counter Measures 2013’ international conference held at the think-tank Royal United Services Institute, London, on 4 February 2013. Peer-reviewed abstracts of fifteen oral papers and nineteen posters presented in this conference are published as proceedings in this issue of the Military Medical Science Letters journal (ISSN 0372-7025). This meeting brought together academic, government and third sector organisations to debate key issues in anthrax counter measures under four themes: ‘What might happen? How will we know? How to respond? What does the future look like?’. Topics explored include injectional anthrax (the latest and fourth mode of infection), inhalational anthrax (which drives biodefence considerations like animal models, emergency preparedness, etc.), the role of US government agencies post-Amerithrax attacks (especially the Animal Rule and Project BioShield, and the first licensed product raxibacumab), current and emerging trends in detection and diagnostics, etc. Discussions took place on how to accelerate products from laboratory to field, how to make the most out of the currently licensed antibiotics and vaccines, and how to bridge the gap between science and frontline response to anthrax. More efforts are needed to quantify the overall burden of the Amerithrax attacks, including the impact on tourism and business showdowns or diversions. This will enable governments to demonstrate value for taxpayer money and identify gaps through initiatives such as the annual preparedness index, shelf-life extension programmes, etc. Continued fiscal pressures could also encourage like-minded friendly governments to share resources and stockpiles, leading to other benefits such as increased resilience and cooperation.
Leo Klein, Vlasta Neklapilova
2013, 87 - 91
On 28th November 2012, the Social Health Academy, the Regional Emergency Medical Service, and the Department of Military Surgery at the University of Defence together held a workshop on States of Preparedness for Emergency- and Mass-Casualty Situations (MCS). The speakers were Dr. Moshe Michaelson (Director, Teaching Centre for Trauma, Emergency and Mass-Casualty Situations) and Mrs. Gila Hyams, RN (Director of Nursing and Trauma Co-ordinator) at the Rambam Hospital in Haifa, Israel. Altogether, thirty medical ...
2013, 92 - 92
University Hospital Hradec Králové in cooperation with Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Hradec Králové, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defense, Hradec Králové organizing 18th Interdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicology Conference TOXCON 2013.
Petr Zuja, Zdenek Skalican, Pavel Otrisal
2013, 94 - 101
Personnel decontamination belongs to one of the crucial measurements performed to personnel´s protection within hazard management after either employment of Weapons of Mass Destruction or leakage of Toxic Industrial Materials. Suitable personnel, technical and material conditions corresponding to current demands and trends are necessary to create its realization in this area. Knowledge gained within solution problems of personnel decontamination, casualty decontamination, immobile people decontamination, decontamination of personnel weapons, selected Individual Protective Equipment, personnel garments, accoutrements and other materials with the usage of modular elements are summarized in this paper. A conceptual proposal of solution of a mobile decontamination system for personnel decontamination is also stated in this paper.
Brian J. Bennion, Edmond Y. Lau, Jean-Luc Fattebert, Patrick Huang, Eric Schwegler, William Corning, Felice C. Lightstone
2013, 102 - 114
Traditional chemical weapon agents (CWAs) are known to bind acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Their lethality is known to be different for different mammalian species. We have modeled the binding affinity of CWAs to AChE and BuChE in human, rabbit, rat and mouse using molecular docking and free energy calculations. Through molecular docking we are able to correctly bind the CWAs at the active site. Using molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MMGBSA) calculations, we determined the binding free energy in the active site. Through these calculations, we observe that correct orientation at the active site is critical to binding.
2013, 115 - 119
The military incapacitating agent BZ (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate) is an anticholinergic compound that acts at both, the peripheral and central nervous system. Effects of the agent were discovered during the Cold War and BZ became one of the most potent anticholinergic psychomimetics, characterized by low effective doses causing long-term incapacitation. History, characteristics and potential use of BZ in behavioral research are discussed throughout this review.
SELECTIVE MONITORING OF ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE BY FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS WITH MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION
Vlastimil Dohnal, Lucie Dohnalova, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca
2013, 120 - 125
Flow injection analysis (FIA) is an analytical method where the reaction mixture is injected into flow of liquid. The reaction product is monitored by a suitable detector such as ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) spectrophotometric or electrochemical detector. Mass spectrometric detectors (MS) are coming to be a standard equipment of analytical laboratories in the present time. This work is focused on application of FIA-MS instrumentation for monitoring of Ellman’s reaction where both reactants (acetylthiocholine and 5,5’-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, DTNB) and the reaction product (5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid) are monitored. This reaction is usually used for monitoring of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Due to its simplicity, the developed method is generally applicable for monitoring of enzymatic reactions of cholinesterases. The main advantage of this method is high selectivity and reduction of influence of compounds, which are reacting with DTNB, resulting in a color product of Ellman’s reaction.
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA ON γ-RADIATION-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN MALE WISTAR RATS
Nwozo S. O., Yakubu O. F., Oyinloye B. E.
2013, 126 - 132
This study was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective potential of aqueous extract of seeds of Aframomum melegueta (A.M.) against gamma radiation-induced (6Gy) liver damage in male Wistar rats. Thirty male rats were randomly distributed into six groups of five animals each and aqueous extract of A.M. was administered at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg b. wt., orally for 2 weeks prior to irradiation and 4 weeks after irradiation, when they were sacrificed. The hepatic antioxidant status; reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined and histological examination was carried out. Exposure of animals to irradiation significantly increased LPO levels in comparison with the normal control group, reduced the level of GSH as well as CAT and GPx activity. On the other hand, there was a significant elevation in the activities of serum ALT and AST after irradiation exposure. Administration of aqueous extract of A.M. at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg before and after irradiation significantly decreased the elevated levels of LPO, restored GSH level near normal and enhanced CAT and GPx activities as well as significantly decreasing the elevated levels of serum ALT and AST activities. The histological examination and results from this study collectively indicate that aqueous extracts of A.M. could protect the liver from radiation-induced damage probably by enhancing the hepatic antioxidant defense mechanism in rats.
Vladimir Pavlik, Eva Drahokoupilova
2013, 133 - 134
Traditionally, the 16th national conference in a row on „Nutrition and Health“ with international participation was held in the spa house Beethoven in Teplice on 18 – 19 September, 2012. The Teplice conference is the largest home conference focused on nutrition hygiene and primary prevention referred to a food intake. This year 40 specialists from the Czech Republic and Slovakia participated there. Specialities were represented mainly by physicians, nutritional therapists and regional hygiene stations workers. The Czech Medical Association, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and the Health Institute located in Ústí nad Labem were in charge of organization of the conference. Within two conference days, 26 special oral presentations were delivered and 16 posters ...
2013, 135 - 137
2013, 138 - 138
Radek Sleha, Vanda Bostikova, Miloslav Salavec, Pavel Bostik, Eva Slehova, Rudolf Kukla, Petra Mosio, Marketa Vydrzalova, Jaroslava Mazurova
2013, 142 - 148
DETECTION OF 2-(DIALKYLAMINO)ETHANETHIOLS AND V-SERIES NERVE AGENTS IN WATER AND AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING FOLIN-CIOCALTEU REAGENT
Vladimir Pitschmann, Lukas Matejovsky, Zbynek Kobliha
2013, 149 - 155
A simple colorimetric tube detector for the detection of 2-(dialkylamino)ethanethiols and V-series nerve agents in water and in aqueous solutions is proposed. The detector is based on the reaction of the compounds with a chromogenic Folin-Ciocalteu reagent yielding a blue coloured reduction product. The detection limit of 2-(dialkylamino)ethanethiols is 2.5 mg/l, measurement range up to 250 mg/l. The detection limit of the V (VX) agent is 10 mg/l. The method allows V agents and their precursors and hydrolysis products to be easily distinguished from G-series nerve agents.
OPPOSITE TRENDS OF INCIDENCE OF GONORRHEA AND OTHER STIS IN THE EASTERN BOHEMIA DURING PAST 15 YEARS
Miloslav Salavec, Vanda Bostik, Petr Prasil, Jan Smetana, Miroslav Splino, Roman Chlibek, Miroslav Louda, Pavel Bostik
2013, 156 - 161
The epidemiology of selected venereal diseases in the Czech Republic has been carefully evaluated for many years. This report containing data from the period 1981-2011 from the eastern Bohemia shows a sharp decrease in the incidence of gonorrhea in 1993-1994 and very low incidence thereafter with slightly higher prevalence in males. However, syphilis and genitourinary infection by Chlamydia trachomatis show entirely opposite trends. Also, for the similar number of diagnostic tests performed, chlamydia showed 10 fold higher ratio of positive cases. This underscores the changing epidemiology of STIs and necessity for adapting the reporting algorithms.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2013, 162 - 171
The subjects of this article are cyclic alcohols with hydroxyl group bound directly to one carbon of the three- up to six-membered ring. They are thus predominantly secondary alcohols. These are substances frequently used as synthons in organic synthesis and many of them are important raw materials of chemical industry, such as cyclohexanol. Some cyclic alcohols were also found in nature, the bulk of them belong to the category of monoterpene substances. Many of them have biological activity, which is also discussed in this article.
Romana Jelinkova, Emil Halamek, Zbynek Kobliha
2013, 172 - 179
Petronela Imreova, Eva Miadokova, Eliska Galova, Stephka Chankova, Ivan Chalupa
2013, 180 - 184
Hyperforin is a prenylated phloroglucinol derivative which occurs in the plant Hypericum perforatum L. It has several medicinally important properties (antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, antibacterial and antiangiogenic). To enable its medicinal use, it is necessary to investigate its potential genotoxic effect on human cell lines. We also observed an anticlastogenic effect of hyperforin towards the indirect mutagen benzo(a)pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene is a widespread polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. We performed experiments on human tumor cell line HepG2, using the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test. We investigated two cytogenic parameters: the number of aberrant metaphases and the total number of chromosome aberrations. We found out that hyperforin was not genotoxic on human cell line HepG2. The second part of our results implies that hyperforin had an anticlastogenic effect against the indirect mutagen benzo(a)pyrene in our experimental conditions. In future we will continue our research by using another range of hyperforin concentrations, other cell lines and other chemical mutagens.
Alzbeta Kracmarova, Lucie Bartosova, Jana Zdarova-Karasova, Filip Zemek, Jiri Bajgar
2013, 185 - 188
The objective of the experiment was to verify that HI-6 dimethanesulphonate (HI-6 DMS) is able to penetrate the skin in amounts sufficient to protect against organophosphate poisoning using a rat model. HI-6 2Cl is a major component of Transant, a transdermal patch, used as a protective agent against organophosphate intoxication in the Czech and Slovak armies, although there is little evidence that HI-6 would penetrate the skin in sufficient amounts. HI-6 DMS at a total amount of 127 mg or 635 mg was applied as a buffer solution on the Transant patch which was fixed on the back of the rat. Two, seven or twenty-four hours later, rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected to determine the levels of HI-6 in plasma by HPLC on reversed phase with isocratic elution and UV/VIS detection. HI-6 was not detectable in plasma samples of animals exposed to 127 mg of HI-6 DMS. The highest levels of HI-6 (20.6 ± 18.8 ng/ml) were found in plasma of animals exposed to 635 mg of HI-6 DMS 2 hours after patch application, whereas after 7 or 24 hours the levels were very low. Based on these results, the ability of HI-6 DMS to penetrate the skin is discussed and some possibilities of improving the transdermal penetration are suggested.
2013, 190 - 190
Main topics of the conference: Emergency and disaster planning and preparation, Disaster medicine – international experience, Major incidents and IRS drills – case studies, Current threats and risks, Ethnic, humanitarian and psycho-social aspects of major incidents, Pre-hospital and hospital emergency care – new trends, Preparation of health-care facilities for major incidents, Education, professional training and competence, Disaster medicine research, CBRNE, Catastrophe impact reduction, Civil and military aspects of disaster medicine.
2013, 191 - 192
On the 20th September, 2013, Czech medical community received a very sad announcement of the death of Professor Radana Königová, a prominent personality in the Czech medicine and whole society, respected authority within the international burns and medical societies. She passed away in the hospital where she had worked for more than 51 years, until the very last days, before orthopedic surgery she had had to undergo. Unfortunately, she did not return to her “second home”, the Prague...