AN INCREASE IN THE PREVALENCE OF SYPHILIS IN WOMEN IN THE EASTERN BOHEMIA - 30 YEARS OF SURVEILLANCE
Miloslav Salavec, Vanda Bostik, Jan Smetana, Roman Chlibek, Miroslav Splino, Radek Sleha, Pavel Bostik
2014, 2 - 7
The epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the Czech Republic has been carefully reported for many years. Here we present an analysis of regional data on syphilis spanning more than 30 years in eastern Bohemia. The epidemiological data were collected by the mandatory reporting of sexually transmitted disorders during the period 1981-2011. The data showed a minimal incidence of the cases in 1990 and an increasing trend thereafter. Two peaks in the incidence are apparent - within years 1995-1999 and 2003-2007. Interestingly, while before 1990 the numbers of positive men always exceeded those of women, within those two peaks these numbers equalize, or those of women even exceed the positive men. The results reflect trends in the changes within the society after 1989. The analysis shows that the regional prevalence of syphilis in the eastern Bohemia still remains at low level compared to some other regions in the Czech Republic.
2014, 8 - 10
The Headquarters Joint Force Command (JFC) at Brunssum is an operational NATO headquarters located in that small town in the Limburg province of the Netherlands. The history of this HQ stems from 1967 when the Allied Forces Central Europe Command (AFCENT) was established there. In March 2000, HQ AFCENT stood down, and the new Regional Headquarters, Allied Forces Northern Europe (RHQ AFNORTH), assumed command of and responsibility for Northern Europe. As a result of the Prague Summit in November...
RESISTANCE OF THE ISOLATIVE PROTECTIVE GARMENT DESIGNATED FOR SPECIALISTS´ PROTECTION AGAINST SELECTED CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS
Pavel Otrisal, Stanislav Florus
2014, 11 - 17
Chlorinated hydrocarbons are very often used and are relatively dangerous substances from healthy risk point of view. While manipulating with them, mainly in large volumes, individual protective equipment (IPE) must be used in a protection position. Users are supposed to know the construction material breakthrough time especially in case of long-term usage of personal IPE and in the situation when contamination of them is real. Studying connections between a chemical compound structure and the structure of IPE characterised by barrier materials enables us to understand present body protective devices protection quality and gives us an optionto choose barrier materials with targeted properties. In this article there are results of breakthrough time of isolating protection folio with a butyl rubber barrier layer in relation to chlorinated ethanes. This material is used for protection of specialists of both Fire Rescue Brigades and the Czech Armed Forces Chemical Corps. The PIEZOTEST device has been used for detection of permeated chemicals. The Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor is a part of PIEZOTEST device.
NON-NEWTONIAN SUSPENSION FORMULATIONS FOR IMPROVED STABILITY AND DELIVERY OF AUTOINJECTABLE CBRN COUNTERMEASURES
Andrew P-Z. Clark, Larry A. Cabell, Joe A. McDonough
2014, 18 - 27
Autoinjectors are commonly employed by the United States and other countries to deliver emergency therapeutics to counteract the effects of various chemical agent threats, including nerve agents. Autoinjector combination products (autoinjector and drug product) used by the military can have drawbacks, including insufficient thermal stability of drug products, limited aqueous solution concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and complicated and expensive designs for delivering multiple drugs simultaneously. We have developed a novel Enhanced Formulation (EF) technology that solves these problems, using nanoparticle suspensions in biocompatible cottonseed oil (CSO) instead of aqueous solutions of API. The hydrophobic CSO prevents hydrolytic degradation by limiting exposure to water, and the noninteraction of co-suspended particles simplifies multi-drug cocktail therapies. The high API loading (10% or more) gives the formulations non-Newtonian rheological behavior, with high zero-shear viscosity to resist sedimentation, and shear thinning to allow injection with standard autoinjectors and needles.
Qing-Hua Wu, Zong-Hui Yuan, Xiu-Juan Zhang
2014, 28 - 33
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) can be activated by multiple environmental stress, leading to varied and contradictory cellular response. JNK mediates cell apoptosis as well as cell survival and proliferation. JNK1 and JNK2 as the major members are able to perform similar and distinct biological functions. This review mainly discussed the mechanism of JNK cell survival function and the distinct roles of JNK1 and JNK2 in cell apoptosis and proliferation. Transient JNK activation may be important for mediating a survival response in TNF-treated cells and chronic JNK activation may contribute to apoptotic response. Other signal transduction pathways may also participate in its protective function. Abrogation of p38 MAPK pathway is assumed to induce pro-survival role. JNK suppresses apoptosis via phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein BAD. Activated JNK inactivates suppressors of the apoptotic machinery, thereby “breaking the brake” on apoptosis.
RAPID INFORMATIVE SCREENING OF NANO-ALAPTIDE AS POTENTIAL TRANSDERMAL PERMEATION ENHANCER OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID AND PARACETAMOL
Aneta Cernikova, Radka Opatrilova, Josef Jampilek
2014, 34 - 39
This investigation deals with the affection of permeation of acetylsalicylic acid and paracetamol applied in the system propylene glycol-water 1:1 through full-thickness pig ear skin by alaptide that was applied in nanonized form as a potential chemical penetration enhancer. Alaptide, (S)-8-methyl-6,9-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-7,10-dione, is the original Czech compound. The application of nanonized alaptide significantly enhanced the permeation of both drugs through the skin. Enhancement ratios in the studied time interval 0.5-2.0 h varied from 1.11 to 17.70 for acetylsalicylic acid and from 6.83 to 19.83 for paracetamol.
Jana Jurczykova, Milan Ruzicka, Petr Witt
2014, 40 - 44
The beginning of participation of Czech troops in a modern history of crisis management abroad dates back to 1990, when the first 200 soldiers of the Czechoslovak anti-chemical unit deployed to Kuwait. The Armed Forces of the Czech republic (CAF) formed from the Czechoslovak Armed Forces in 1992, and from the very beginning kept sending out its troops to foreign operations. An important part of any contingent is its medical support, consisting of a physician (or physicians), field nurses and stretcher-bearers/ambulance drivers. Until the recent past, no resident physician has ever been involved in foreign operation. And there was no reason for that as the CAF used to have plenty of board-certified physicians available. A change occured in 2008 by the operation of a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) assisting in Afghan Logar. This operation commenced in parallel with the ongoing operation in Kosovo, another major operation putting high demands on medical support. At the same time, residency training was prolonged to a period of five years. Lack of board-certified physicians therefore led to an idea of dispatching...
Ales Macela, Jiri Stulik
2014, 46 - 51
The Institute of Molecular Pathology was founded on May 1, 1994 as a scientific centre of the Purkyne Military Medical Academy. During the twenty years of its existence the Institute has gained reputation of a qualified research centre focused on infection biology, clinical proteomic studies and biodefense. The advanced proteomics combined with cellular and molecular biology techniques and broad international collaboration have enabled the Institute to educate Ph.D. students at the highest possible level. Meetings, workshops, and conferences organized by the Institute have been attended by recognized scientists. The twentieth anniversary of the Institute foundation is a good opportunity to recap the results of its work.
Georg A Petroianu, Gagani Athauda, Ferenc Darvas, Huba Kalasz & Dietrich E Lorke
2014, 52 - 58
Petra Maresova, Vladimir Sobeslav, Kamil Kuca
2014, 59 - 66
THE USE OF IMMUNOENZYMATIC METHOD FOR DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN CZECH SOLDIERS RETURNING FROM AFGHANISTAN
Petra Strakova, Ivo Rudolf, Oto Pavlis, Zdenek Hubalek
2014, 67 - 72
In this work, we focused on detection of IgG antibodies in the blood sera from Czech soldiers returning from Afghanistan against selected zoonotic diseases by commercially available ELISA kits. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., complex of Rickettsia conorii, Leishmania infantum, hantaviruses and hepatitis E virus. Except for L. infantum (all persons were negative), we found following seroreactivity rate: 10 % in B. abortus, 11 % in C. burnetii, 20 % in Leptospira spp., 10 % in R. conorii and 4 % in both hepatitis E virus and hantaviruses.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2014, 73 - 82
Respiratory irritants are substances which can cause inflammation or other adverse reactions in the respiratory system (lungs, nose, mouth, larynx and trachea) after being inhaled. Depending on the type and amount of irritant gas inhaled, victims can experience symptoms ranging from minor respiratory discomfort to acute airway and lung injury and even death. The lungs are susceptible to many airborne irritants. A common response cascade to a variety of irritant gases includes inflammation, edema and epithelial sloughing which, left untreated, can result in scar formation and pulmonary and airway remodeling. There are hundreds of substances that can pollute air and harm lungs. Harmful gases and chemicals are just one type of airborne pollutants that can adversely affect the lungs. Examples of respiratory irritants include, for example, chlorine, amonium, ozone, sulphur dioxide or nitrogen oxides. These substances, their sources of exposure, physical and other properties, and effects on the victim are summarized in this article.
Leo Klein, Josef Fusek
2014, 83 - 84
2014, 85 - 85
MAIN TOPICS: News in vaccination 2014, Invasive bacterial diseases, Rotavirus gastroenteritis, Human papillomavirus diseases, Therapeutic cancer vaccines, Selected case reports in vaccination, Controversies in vaccination, Current problems of vaccination in selected diseases, Vaccination against exanthema diseases.
2014, 86 - 86
MAIN TOPICS: Influenza and new respiratory viral agents, Viral emerging infections, Viral congenital and neonatal infections, Viral blood born infections, Anthropozoonoses of viral origin, Viral gastroenteritis, Viruses and immunosuppressed host, Viral pathogenesis and immunity, Viral diagnosis, Viruses and oncogenesis, New antiviral agents, Strategies and progress in viral vaccines, Molecular epidemiology, Quality assurance in virology laboratory.
2014, 87 - 87
The Bulgarian Toxicological Society edited a book “Problems of Toxiclogy”. This book includes reports which were presented at the Fourth National Congress of Clinical Toxicology with International Participation and Annual Meeting of Bulgarian Toxicological Society, which were held in Sofia, Military Medical Academy, Bulgaria, from 7th to 8th November, 2013...
Amanda R. Furman, Teresa L. Garrett, Christine M. Rapp, David G. Watson, James B. Lucot
2014, 90 - 96
Poisoning from chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin is associated with neuronal degeneration. This damage is thought to result from glutamatergic excitotoxicity such as seen following kainic acid induced seizures. In order to search for novel neuroprotectants it is necessary to select good mouse models for susceptibility to nerve agent-induced seizures and the resulting neurodegeneration. The mouse strains tested (C57BL/6, ICR, DBA/2, SW, and FVB/N, Harlan Laboratory) had widely different sensitivity to sarin as shown by differences in the dose required resulting in 50% mortality, LD50. Differences also were observed among the strains in Fluoro-Jade C staining with the C57BL/6 and DBA having little to no staining when euthanized at 7 days whereas the other strains did. Differences in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity were found among the strains as well. The ICR strain was excluded from the FOB and weight data due to difficulty getting a consistent LD50. Weight loss and FOB scores were similar for all strains. All strains had inhibited AChE activity after sarin exposure and exhibited inhibition of CNS BuChE after sarin exposure but only ICR and SW reached significance.
Shreesh Ojha, Charu Sharma, Syed M Nurulain
2014, 97 - 103
Organophosphorus (OP) is a large group of compounds with a wide variety of applications. The group comprises insecticides, pesticides and nematicides etc. in addition to deadly poison OP warfare chemicals like sarin and tabun. Thousands of casualties have been reported globally each year by the unintentional and intentional use of OP compounds. Uses of deadly poison OP like sarin by terrorists groups and irresponsible regimens have been documented as well. The threat always exists. The mainstream therapy includes administration of atropine, pralidoxime and bezodiazepines in addition to general supportive measures. Despite this standard therapy, the mortality rates of OP poisoning are still high. Different approaches and methodologies have been postulated and introduced as an alternative to standard therapy but none could replace the existing standard therapy. The present short review examined the possibility of usage of antihistamines as alternate to atropine. Pros and cons have been discussed. The study suggests that some of the first generation antihistamines like promethazine and diphenhydramine may be effectively used as antidote for OP poisoning depending upon the degree of poisoning. They may have several advantages like inexpensive, systematically and centrally acting anticholinergic antihistamines, readily crosses bloodbrain barrier, and large quantities of the drug exist in most hospitals and pharmacies, providing a reservoir in the event of a mass casualty event. However, further clinical studies and evidences are warranted.
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF USNIC ACID AND OCTYL GALLATE AGAINST RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS STRAINS
Rudolf Kukla, Jaroslava Mazurova, Vanda Bostikova, Radek Sleha, Eva Slehova, Sylva Janovska, Vaclava Adamkova
2014, 104 - 113
The genus Enterococcus is represented by some of the clinically important species and is well known for its antibiotic resistance, which participates in colonization and infection. Increasing resistance of enterococci has been evoked due to the excessive use of antibiotics not merely for therapeutic purposes or in indicated cases. One of the promising possibilities how to reduce the use of great amount of antibiotics is to utilize antimicrobial properties of natural substances. Usnic acid is a lichen compound possessing antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria including enterococci. Octyl gallate, gallic acid ester, has significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. This study was focused on the evaluation of resistant enterococci susceptibility to usnic acid and octyl gallate in comparison with control group of enterococci. Antibacterial activity of usnic acid and octyl gallate was defined as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC value). Usnic acid inhibited all tested enterococci in concentration range 4.7-37.5 mg.L-1. MIC values of octyl gallate for all tested enterococci ranged between 37.5-150 mg.L-1. In contrast to octyl gallate, bactericidal activity of usnic acid was not confirmed. Antibacterial activities of tested compounds were almost equal among resistant enterococci and control group of enterococci exhibiting great potential of usnic acid and octyl gallate for treatment of enterococcal infections.
Qing-Hua Wu, Guang-Xu Wu, Yun Wang, Dan Wan, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Zong-Hui Yuan
2014, 114 - 119
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins in contaminated food and feed worldwide. It is toxic to humans and inhibits DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. In this review, the metabolism of DON and its exposure in humans from different regions are summarized. Conjugated products DON-3-glucuronide, DON-15-glucuronide, and DON-7-glucuronide are found to be the major metabolites in humans. Human exposure of DON shows some regional differences due to the different DON levels in cereal-based foods and the food intake habits. C12,13-deepoxy metabolite, DOM-1 can be found in most French populations but is rarely detected in UK adults. Spanish exposes lower DON levels than the UK populations. A very high DON exposure is detected in South Africa and Linxian, China. Fetus is shown to expose to DON during pregnancy in human. This review will provide global information of DON metabolism and exposure in humans and facilitate the mycotoxin control strategies.
2014, 120 - 131
Uranium from the environment enters the human body by ingestion with food and drink and by inhalation of respirable airborne uranium-containing dust particles or aerosols. A 70 kg, non-occupationally exposed ’Reference Man’ living in Europe or in the United States has an estimated total body uranium content of about 22 micrograms. Uranium is absorbed from the intestine or the lungs, enters the bloodstream, and is rapidly deposited in the tissues, predominantly kidney and bone, or excreted into the urine. In the bloodstream, uranium is associated with red cells, and its clearance is relatively rapid. Renal toxicity is a major adverse effect of uranium, but the metal has toxic effects on the cardiovascular system, liver, muscle, and nervous system as well. Any possible direct risk of cancer or other chemical- or radiation-induced health detriments from uranium deposited in the human body is probably less than 0.005% in contrast to an expected indirect risk of 0.2% to 3% through inhaling the radioactive inert gas radon, which is produced by the decay of environmental uranium-238 in rocks and soil and is present in materials that are used to build dwellings and buildings where people live and work.
Petra Maresova, Kamil Kuca
2014, 134 - 144
Daniel Kovar, Zdenek Voldrich, Pavel Voska, Jan Lestak, Eva Drahokoupilova
2014, 145 - 150
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2014, 151 - 164
Many aldehydes are respiratory irritants which can cause inflammation or other adverse reactions in the respiratory system after being inhaled. Depending on the type and amount of irritant compound inhaled, victims can exhibit symptoms ranging from minor respiratory discomfort to acute airway and lung injury and even death. The lungs are susceptible to many airborne irritants. There are hundreds of substances that can pollute air and harm lungs. Aldehydes are just one type of airborne pollutants that can adversely affect lungs. Some of these agents may be directly toxic. They are also strong irritants for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. The vapor is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Aldehydes as acrolein or glutaraldehyde are also corrosive substances.
CHEMICAL WARFARE: PERSPECTIVES ON REACTIVATING THE ENZYME ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITED BY ORGANOPHOSPHATES
Juliana de O. S. Giacoppo, Willian E. A. de Lima, Kamil Kuca, Elaine F. F. da Cunha, Tanos C. C. França, Teodorico de C. Ramalho
2014, 165 - 177
It is known that nerve agents are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and, thus, transmission of nerve impulses. The process of AChE inhibition by nerve agents can be reversed by a nucleophile able to dephosphorylate the enzyme. In this sense, oximes exhibit this characteristic and are able to remove the neurotoxic and reactivate AChE. Here, we review experimental and theoretical results involving docking and quantum mechanical-molecular mechanics hybrid methods (QM/MM), using Molegro® and Spartan® softwares to analyze the interaction of different nerve agents and oximes with AChE and to evaluate kinetic constants of reactivation.
POLYMER THERAPEUTICS FOR TREATMENT OF VIRAL INFECTIONS SUCH AS EBOLA – HOW TO TEACH NEW TRICKS TO AN OLD DOG? A HYPOTHESIS.
2014, 178 - 182
Polymer drug delivery systems were during last few decades proven to be efficient potential therapeutics for cancer treatment, especilly for the treatment of solid tumors, where they may take advantage of the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect for tumor-specific passive accumulation. Controlled release of anticancer drugs in cancer cells may be triggered by. e.g., cathepsin B activation after endocytosis. Endosomal proteases, especially cathepsins B and L, are known to be one of the key factors influencing some viral infections. For instance Ebola virus requires partial proteolysis of its surface glycoprotein for efficient endosome escape within its life cycle. We hypothesize that polymeric cathepsin B and L inhibitors may utilize advantages of polymer delivery systems for more effective treatment of viral infections with cathepsin inhibitors reducing systemic toxicity and increasing efficacy by targeted delivery of these inhibitors.
IGOR LINHART: TOXICOLOGY. INTERACTIONS OF NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES WITH LIVING ORGANISMS, THEIR MECHANISMS, MANIFESTATIONS AND EFFECTS. 2ND AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTED EDITION. UNIVERSITY OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY IN PRAGUE, 2014, 412P. ISBN 978-80-7080-87
2014, 183 - 183
The publishing house of the University of Chemical Technology in Prague published in a short time (first edition in 2012) amended and supplemented second edition of the Toxicology textbook. A chapter newly included in the second edition discusses the toxicity of some common chemical reagents and solvents and the risks to health and the environment which is or may be associated with work in chemical laboratories. The author of the textbook is assoc. prof. Ing. Igor Linhart, Ph.D., one of the prominent Czech...