James C. Ball
2015, 2 - 41
Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC) deals with the unintended consequences of research and development and is particularly acute in the area of drug development. The United States National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) has defined DURC as "research that, based on current understanding, can be reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, products, or technologies that could be directly misapplied by others to pose a threat to public health, agriculture, plants, animals, the environment, or materiel” (1). One particular receptor antagonist and glycolate anticholinergic compound (BZ, QNB or 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate) was stockpiled by the United States as a non-lethal chemical weapon that incapacitates and severely degrades the capability of exposed individuals (2). Given time and medical treatment, combatants and non-combatants exposed to such incapacitating agents could recover without any long-term effects. The purpose of this review is to identify potential new and more potent incapacitating agents based on the structures of BZ or atropine using peer reviewed publications of new pharmaceutical agents. A number of peer reviewed studies have reported on compounds with effects observed at lower concentrations than or comparable to BZ suggesting that these compounds could also be developed as potential chemical incapacitating chemical warfare agents and represent good examples of the principal of Dual Use Research of Concern.
Jaroslav Zdara, Zdenek Hrstka
2015, 42 - 47
2015, 48 - 48
On 17th December 2014, an anniversary day of birth of J.E. Purkinje, a ceremonial committee meeting of the Society of Military Physicians, Pharmacists and Veterinarians of the Czech Medical Association of J.E.Purkinje was held at the Faculty of Military Health Sciences of the University of Defence in Hradec Králové. On that occasion the merited and outstanding representatives of military medicine were awarded honorary membership diplomas. The founding members of the Society COL (retd.) Assoc. Prof. MUDr. Jiří Bajgar, DrSc., COL (retd.) MUDr. Milan Veselý, and COL (retd.) MUDr. Stanislav Konštacký, CSc., were awarded. In this way, the Committee of the Society has shown its appreciation and has honoured them for their longstanding work and outstanding...
Petra Maresova, Kamil Kuca
2015, 50 - 56
International terrorism becomes one of the most dangerous problems at the beginning of the 21st century. Terrorist attacks have serious impact on politics, economy, military as well as security forces, international law and legislation, and psychological issues. International terrorism is legally characterised not only as a threat to the life and property of individuals, but also as a worldwide threat to human civilization, social order, international public order and values. The aim of this contribution is to specify the incidence of terrorist attacks from 1970 to 2013 in European countries and to characterise their imminent impact on the number of casualties. Furthermore, the contribution aims to specify the type of these attacks, weapons employed in them and numbers of casualties corresponding to various types of weapons. The analysis was based on data from databases and existing studies. The monitored period witnessed a slow but steady increase in the incidence of terrorist attacks in the EU countries without any significant changes. The types of weapons employed in these attacks did not change much, either.
DEPARTMENT OF TOXICOLOGY AND MILITARY PHARMACY – IMPORTANT PART OF THE FACULTY OF MILITARY HEALTH SCIENCES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DEFENCE
Jiri Bajgar, Jiri Kassa
2015, 57 - 66
The Department of Toxicology and Military Pharmacy (DTMF) as a part of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defense was founded in 1951. During more than sixty years of its existence, the Department has gained reputation of a highly qualified research centre focused on the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWA), development of antidotes including antidotal means for the Army, solving questions with medical protection against highly toxic agents and educational activities, both pre- and postgradual including international cooperation. Meetings and scientific conferences organized by the Department have been attended by recognized scientists. Its future activities are focused on further studies and development of medical countermeasures including means against effects of CWA preferably nerve agents. There is real and concrete contribution of the Department to the improvement of medical protection of armed forces against the effects of CWA.
Wilian A. Cortopassi,Teodorico C. Ramalho, Carlos A. M. Fraga, Iris Mangas, Kamil Kuca, and Tanos C. C. França
2015, 67 - 75
The bubonic plague or black plague is a zoonosis, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which quickly infects a great number of people, being able to decimate entire populations. This characteristic has turned plague into a dangerous biological warfare agent since the 16th century. Nowadays, the cure for plague is available; however the possibility of genetic engineering of Y. pestis strains could lead to the resurgence of this disease as a worldwide health problem of extreme gravity. In this work we have made a short resume and discussion on plague to provide readers with some information on its historical and clinical aspects, the currently used therapy and the potential of plague being used as a biological warfare agent nowadays.
2015, 76 - 77
2015, 78 - 79
2015, 80 - 81
NATO ADVANCED RESEARCH WORKSHOP: HOSPITALS UNDER FIRE - PLANNING AND OPERATING A HOSPITAL UNDER FIRE AND EXTREME CIRCUMSTANCES
Leo Klein, Moshe Michaelson, Gila Hyams
2015, 82 - 92
Whether caused by terrorism or natural disasters, mass casualties have become a contingency that must be faced by all hospitals, regardless of size. The objective of this NATO supported workshop was to bring together experts in the field of trauma medicine and trauma health care services, both military and civilian, to discuss methods for providing timely, effective, and efficient health care in mass casualty situations. Issues discussed included, but were not limited to: (1) hardening existing infrastructure or building new infrastructure (including communication and computer infrastructure) to resist damage from terrorism, or man-made/natural disasters, (2) use of disaster simulations and drills to prepare for mass casualties, (3) use of field hospitals to provide point-of-injury care, and (4) health care logistics for mass casualty events. Given that mass casualty situations are not everyday occurrences, the workshop also addressed the issues of cost of constant readiness, and cost of infrequent use. Preparing for mass casualty situations represents a complex sociopolitical, organizational and logistical problem. It requires co-operation at multiple levels of government and among both civilian and military health care services. A mass casualty event can occur at any time, which makes preparedness not only essential, but also an urgent precondition.
Namrata Singh, Ondrej Soukup, Rafael Dolezal, Zdenek Fisar, Bhanushree Gupta, Kallol K. Ghosh, Kamil Kuca
2015, 94 - 103
The present article is aimed at determination of acid dissociation constants (pKa), lipophilicity (logP) and hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and donor (HBD) counts of some novel xylene-linked bispyridiniumoxime based AChE reactivators. The choice was supported by their use in the therapy of acute intoxication with organophosphorus AChE inhibitors. UV-Vis spectrophotometry has been used to measure experimental pKa values at 27°C, while software Marvin Sketch (chemaxon) has been used to estimate structure based computational pKa, logP values and hydrogen bonding parameters. The results were compared with standard oximes (HI-6 and obidoxime) under similar conditions. All the calculated pKa values lie in the range of 7.45-9.85 which is well in agreement with most of the oxime reactivators studied so far.
DEOXYNIVALENOL, A TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXIN: REVIEW OF ITS MASKED FORM, CONTAMINATION IN CEREAL-BASED FEED, AND MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYTICAL METHODS
Xiujuan Zhang, Deyu Huang, Dan Wan, Qinghua Wu
2015, 104 - 114
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin regularly occurring in cereals. It is toxic to humans and inhibits DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Moreover, its conjugated products, called masked mycotoxins, including DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G), is another “emerging” food safety issue in recent years. In this review, we first discussed the nature of contamination of masked DON in cereal-based food and feed; moreover, the new reported masked DON is summarized and we also focused on its toxicity and digestion in human and animal bodies. In addition, the contamination of DON in cereal-based feed in different countries was summarized and some regular patterns of DON occurrence are suggested. Finally, the LC-MS methods for the determination of DON and masked DON in food, feed and animal fluids were compared. This review will provide further information for DON and masked DON contamination and shed some light on the mycotoxin control strategies.
AGENTS FOR DEFENSE AGAINST CHEMICAL WARFARE: REACTIVATORS OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITED WITH NEUROTOXIC ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
Petronilho, E. C., Figueroa-Villar, J. D.
2015, 115 - 127
The chemical warfare agents and neurotoxic agents are an important threat to people all over the world, and require special attention because they are highly dangerous. Most of these agents are neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OP), which inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is responsible for controlling the transmission of nerve impulses. To be inhibited by these compounds, AChE can sometimes be reactivated using cationic oximes, which are the most used substances for this reactivation. Until today there have not been discovered agents for complete treatment of poisoning by all OPs. For this reason, the treatment of intoxicated people requires the determination of the absorbed OP, in order to select the appropriate activator, a process that usually requires long time and may cause death. Therefore, this study aims to do a review on the OPs used as chemical warfare agents and the process of inhibition and reactivation of AChE, especially to motivate the development of new agents for defense against chemical weapons, a process that is very important for protecting all humanity.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2015, 128 - 139
World War I was a conflict where chemical warfare was first used on a massive scale. The earliest chemical attack occurred on the Western Front in October 1914 in Neuve Chapelle, but its effects were so minimal that the Allies learned about it only after the war from German documents. The attack in the Bolimow area, carried out by the Germans against the Russian army with artillery shells containing gas T (xylyl and benzyl bromides), was therefore the first attack on a massive scale recorded on the victim side. The attack, which occurred after it, made it possible to obtain some tactical success, but without a strategic breakthrough. Some of the later German attacks on the Eastern Front where chlorine was used proved to be more effective, but despite many victims there was not any major strategic success achieved. The Russians did not take attempts to use chemical weapons in the World War I.
WAR INJURIES FROM PAST TO PRESENT. (EDS.) V. SMRČKA, V. MÁDLOVÁ, KAROLINUM PRESS, PRAGUE,1ST EDITION, 2014, 178 PAGES, ISBN 978-80-246-2290-3.
2015, 140 - 141
2015, 142 - 143
Mass disasters, whether caused by natural, industrial or other man-made events, require rapid mitigation of the resultant consequences, for which equally rapid, simple and proper communication is an essential prerequisite for multidisciplinary rescue teams from various fields. Such communication is the only means by which lives can be saved and further damages prevented. In today’s globalized world, wherein international co-operation in cases of mass disaster has become quite typical and necessary, the issue of inter-communication and understanding among teams has become all the more urgent. This also applies...
Dominika Coufalova, Eva Michalova, Borivoj Vojtesek, Lenka Hernychova
2015, 146 - 151
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange connected with mass spectrometry is increasingly applied for the interrogation of protein conformation, mapping protein dynamics, identification of protein-ligand interaction sites, and allosteric conformation changes. The dynamics of protein changes is determined with the m/z value of deuterated and non-deuterated protein or percentage of deuterium incorporation for the digested peptides. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange data are processed with selected software and finally quaternary structure of protein is visualized showing how different protein and ligand chains hook up with each other. Obtained results can help understand how protein interacts with its ligand and elucidate the role of this complex in a living organism. Utilization of this method is demonstrated by the amyloid-beta peptide aggregation associated with Alzheimer´s disease; determination of the structure toxin-co-regulated pili Vibrio cholerae in connection with its pathogenesis or revelation of binding sites on Mouse double minute 2 homolog complex with small molecule Nutlin-3 which is important for elucidation of drug effects in cancer research.
Vanda Bostik, Miloslav Salavec, Radek Sleha, Petr Prasil, Jan Marek, Ondrej Soukup, Kamil Kuca
2015, 152 - 165
Group of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) present a range of disorders from relatively moderately serious to human life threatening entities whose mortality reaches high levels. There are classified as acute viral febrile diseases characterized by nausea, myalgia and fatigue, dominating with general alteration of vessel permeability and regulation. Symptoms of bleeding often occur, particularly in severe cases which are usually diffuse and present a symptom of general vessel injury rather than life-threatening condition.
MONITORING OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHANGES IN THE ARMED FORCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC PERSONNEL DURING THE DEPLOYMENT IN AFGHANISTAN
Jan Psutka, Vladimír Pavlík, Jana Fajfrová, Miroslav Urban, Tomáš Halajčuk
2015, 166 - 169
The aim of the work is to describe the change of nutritional status and the change of physical activities in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic during the deployment on foreign missions in Afghanistan. As for anthropometric data, body weight, body mass index and the amount of visceral fat and muscle mass were monitored. In each monitored person the measurement was performed at least twice, the first one immediately after the beginning of the mission and the control one shortly before finishing the mission. Height was measured using a calibrated measuring device and body weight was weighed using a calibrated stand-on scale. BMI was calculated as BMI = weight / height2. The amount of total body fat was measured using Tanita BC-543 analyzer. After comparing individual contingents, statistically significant seems to be the Third Contingent, where a decrease of total body fat and visceral fat was observed. Similarly, statistically significant was the Fifth Contingent, where a decrease of body weight and BMI was observed. In the five monitored groups, which were measured in the Field Hospital in Kabul in the course of all four seasons of the year, some almost statistically significant changes of body composition, meaning a decrease of anthropometric characteristics, were registered. Only minimal statistical changes were registered in average values of all measured military professionals (n=251).
Blanka Klimova, Kamil Kuca
2015, 170 - 176
Soldiers, particularly those involved in combat operations, are exposed to a continuous danger frequently resulting in various types of injuries, out of which the most common and serious is traumatic brain injury (TBI). Up to the second quarter of 2015, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center has recorded 333,169 cases of active soldiers affected with TBI. TBI can be defined as an injury that results from external force to the head and causes an alternation of loss of consciousness. The key symptoms of TBI comprise physical problems, sensory impairments, behavioral changes, cognitive disorders, communication difficulties, and swallowing disorders. The purpose of this study is to review available studies on TBI among active military personnel with special focus on communication disorders. The methods applied for this study include a method of literature review of both clinical and review studies relevant for the researched issue in the acknowledged databases and a method of comparison and evaluation of their findings. The findings show that the research studies exploring communication disorders among the active military personnel are rare. In addition, earlier diagnosis of TBI is needed as well as a multidisciplinary team intervention approach to the treatment of TBI.
Vanda Bostik, Miloslav Salavec, Radek Sleha, Petr Prasil, Jan Marek, Ondrej Soukup, Kamil Kuca
2015, 177 - 181
2015, 182 - 185
It was with interest and pleasure that I read the contribution of Petronilho & Figueroa-Villaret in the MMSL reviewing the literature on agents for defense against chemical warfare [Petronilho & Figueroa-Villaret, 2015]. The authors briefly touch on the history of organophosphates emphasizing the pioneering contribution of Jean Louis Lassaigne, the synthesis of triethyl- phosphate (TEP) and finally the achievements of Philippe de Clermont who codeveloped the first organophosphate (OP) acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEEP). They continue by pointing out that Wilson and Ginsburg managed to reactivate OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase using pralidoxime (2 -PAM), which reactivates the enzyme much faster than hydroxylamine. I believe that the scientists involved in organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor & reactivator development deserve more attention and that the colleagues’ contribution contains a number of ambiguities deserving additional...
2015, 186 - 188
Tularemia is an epizootic infection caused by Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis). Tularemia is mainly a disease of wild animals that is transmitted to humans by contaminated environment or ectoparasites. Any age, sex, or race is universally susceptible to infection. Infection is incidental and is usually a result of interaction with biting or blood-sucking insects, wild animals, or their environment. F. tularensis is an etiologic agent of tularemia and, with rare exception, the only disease produced by this genus. The organism is a small, Gram-negative, pleomorphic, nonmotile, nonspore-forming coccobacillus. It is a strict aerobe that infects the host as a facultative, intracellular bacterium. The two main biovars, F. tularensis biovar tularensis (Type A) and F. tularensis biovar holarctica (Type B) exist. Type A produces the more serious disease in humans with an untreated fatality rate of approximately 5% and is found in the North American...
2015, 189 - 192
A report about experiences gained during a month internship at the Queen Astrid Military Hospital Burns Centre in Brussels, Belgium, in May 2015.