Kamil Kuca et al.
2013, 0 - 0
β-AMINO ACIDS AND THEIR NATURAL BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE DERIVATIVES. 5. DERIVATIVES OF UNUSUAL ALICYCLIC AND HETEROCYCLIC β-AMIMO ACIDS
2011, 2 - 11
α-Amino carboxylic acids are one of five major classes of natural products and play a crucial role in diverse biological functions. Historically, the amino acids have been subdivided into proteinogenic and nonproteinogenic respresentatives. β-Amino acids are similar to alfa-amino acids in that they contain an amino terminus and a carboxyl terminus. However, in β-amino acids two carbon atoms separate these functional termini. β-Amino acids, with a specific side chain, can exist as the R or S isomers at either the α(C2) carbon or the β(C3) carbon. This results in a total of 4 possible diastereoisomers for any given side chain. β-Amino acids are not proteinogenic amino acids, but some of them are constituents of soma natural and biologically active compounds.
Unusual β-amino acids are alicyclic β-amino acids and heterocyclic β-amino acids. Alicyclic β-amino acids, in which both the β-amino and the acids functionality are vicinally attached to an aliphatic ring, still represent a demanding challenge to the synthetic chemist. One reason for this lies in the intriguing difficulty associated with controlling the absolute and relative stereochemistry of two adjacent stereocenters. In heterocyclic β-amino acids the nitrogen of amino group is a part of nitrogen heterocycles. Some natural derivatives of alicyclic β-amino acids and heterocyclic β-amino acids, their chemical structures and biological activities are discussed in this mini-review.
Vitezslav Vlcek, Miroslav Pohanka
2012, 2 - 8
Carbamates neurotoxins are a group of compounds acting as pseudo-irreversible inhibitors of an enzyme acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. The compounds are well known as pesticides. Some of them, such as rivastigmine, pyridostigmine, and neostigmine, can be used as drugs for Myasthenia gravis or Alzheimer disease as well. The present review is aimed to summarize the basic facts about carbamate pesticides. Legislative aspects, e.g. law No. 326/2004 Coll., in the Czech Republic and examples of accidental exposures to carbamates in the country are provided, too. Other general provisions are determined by the EU, in particular by the Directive 91/414/EHS. The European legislative is discussed, too. Finally, examples of accidental exposures are introduced in the study.
BINDING OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS TO ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS: POSSIBLE CHEMICAL WARFARE NERVE AGENTS
James C. Ball
2013, 2 - 24
Classical chemical nerve agents are organophosphate based compounds such as Sarin, Soman, Tabun, VX and others. These compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterases in the synapses of nerve junctions. Instead of inactivating acetylcholinesterases, compounds, quaternary amines, can block nerve transmission by binding primarily to the acetylcholine receptor sites. The U.S. Patent Office has published 23 unique patents or invention registrations on the synthesis of compounds that can bind to muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is likely that some of these compounds could serve as either polarizing or nonpolarizing nerve agents that bind to the acetylcholine receptor and block binding of acetylcholine. This paper has systematically reviewed a series of bisquaternary amines that could be potentially deadly nerve agents. Analogous tertiary amines, based on the structure of the parent bisquaternary amines, have been proposed as compounds that might be more soluble in membranes making them more bioavailable and toxic. Finally, methods have been discussed that could identify this class of compounds using a bioassay for binding to the acetylcholine receptor. A tool in the identification of these compounds, the Hofmann elimination reaction, has been proposed as a novel method for helping to establish that quaternary or tertiary amines are functional groups of the nerve agent.
AN INCREASE IN THE PREVALENCE OF SYPHILIS IN WOMEN IN THE EASTERN BOHEMIA - 30 YEARS OF SURVEILLANCE
Miloslav Salavec, Vanda Bostik, Jan Smetana, Roman Chlibek, Miroslav Splino, Radek Sleha, Pavel Bostik
2014, 2 - 7
The epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the Czech Republic has been carefully reported for many years. Here we present an analysis of regional data on syphilis spanning more than 30 years in eastern Bohemia. The epidemiological data were collected by the mandatory reporting of sexually transmitted disorders during the period 1981-2011. The data showed a minimal incidence of the cases in 1990 and an increasing trend thereafter. Two peaks in the incidence are apparent - within years 1995-1999 and 2003-2007. Interestingly, while before 1990 the numbers of positive men always exceeded those of women, within those two peaks these numbers equalize, or those of women even exceed the positive men. The results reflect trends in the changes within the society after 1989. The analysis shows that the regional prevalence of syphilis in the eastern Bohemia still remains at low level compared to some other regions in the Czech Republic.
James C. Ball
2015, 2 - 41
Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC) deals with the unintended consequences of research and development and is particularly acute in the area of drug development. The United States National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) has defined DURC as "research that, based on current understanding, can be reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, products, or technologies that could be directly misapplied by others to pose a threat to public health, agriculture, plants, animals, the environment, or materiel” (1). One particular receptor antagonist and glycolate anticholinergic compound (BZ, QNB or 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate) was stockpiled by the United States as a non-lethal chemical weapon that incapacitates and severely degrades the capability of exposed individuals (2). Given time and medical treatment, combatants and non-combatants exposed to such incapacitating agents could recover without any long-term effects. The purpose of this review is to identify potential new and more potent incapacitating agents based on the structures of BZ or atropine using peer reviewed publications of new pharmaceutical agents. A number of peer reviewed studies have reported on compounds with effects observed at lower concentrations than or comparable to BZ suggesting that these compounds could also be developed as potential chemical incapacitating chemical warfare agents and represent good examples of the principal of Dual Use Research of Concern.
HI-6 TREATMENT DOES NOT REACTIVATE SARIN INHIBITED ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN DOG BRAIN WHEN ADMINISTERED IN HUMAN THERAPEUTICAL DOSE 30 MINUTES AFTER THE POISONING
Filip Caisberger, Ladislav Novotny, Petr Hajek, Jan Misik, Jiri Kassa, Jaroslav Pejchal
2016, 2 - 7
2014, 8 - 10
The Headquarters Joint Force Command (JFC) at Brunssum is an operational NATO headquarters located in that small town in the Limburg province of the Netherlands. The history of this HQ stems from 1967 when the Allied Forces Central Europe Command (AFCENT) was established there. In March 2000, HQ AFCENT stood down, and the new Regional Headquarters, Allied Forces Northern Europe (RHQ AFNORTH), assumed command of and responsibility for Northern Europe. As a result of the Prague Summit in November...
Hana Tomaskova, Jitka Kuhnova, Kamil Kuca
2016, 8 - 12
International terrorism is rightly regarded as one of the greatest threats to world security and stability. Terrorist attacks that have occurred in recent years around the world have highlighted the need for a comprehensive approach. Formulation of the problem is a prerequisite for successful work, but the main problem is that there is no single definition of terrorism. View on possible definitions and important concepts are mentioned in this article.
TOPICALLY-USED GENTAMICIN ATTACHED TO NANOFIBRE MDOCTM COMPARED WITH GARAMYCIN SCHWAMM® IN AN ACUTE WOUND INFECTION MODEL. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.
Petr Lochman, Jiri Paral, Dusan Simkovic, Jaromir Koci
2012, 9 - 15
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of topically-used gentamicin attached to a biodegradable carrier, formed by micro-dispersed oxidised cellulose (MDOC) in nanofibre form, in acute wound infection treatment and to compare it with Garamycin Schwamm®. Twelve domestic swines were used in a model of a full-thickness infected dermal wound. The effectiveness of both materials in wound infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli was tested. The effectiveness of both gentamicin with MDOC and Garamycin Schwamm® was comparable in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli infections according to microbiological cultures findings. With Staphylococcus aureus infections there was a higher percent of negative cultures when MDOC with gentamicin was administered, but without statistical significance (p=0.069). When macroscopically assesed, 100 % of infected wounds treated by gentamicin attached to MDOC were without signs of local infection compared to only 16.7 % when Garamycin Schwamm® was used and this was statistically significant (p<0.01). For statistical analysis we used a Fisher´s exact test. When combined with a nanofibre MDOC carrier, topically-used gentamicin seems to be rendered more for treatment of full-thickness skin infections. The resulting good haemostatic effect of MDOC was observed.
RESISTANCE OF THE ISOLATIVE PROTECTIVE GARMENT DESIGNATED FOR SPECIALISTS´ PROTECTION AGAINST SELECTED CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS
Pavel Otrisal, Stanislav Florus
2014, 11 - 17
Chlorinated hydrocarbons are very often used and are relatively dangerous substances from healthy risk point of view. While manipulating with them, mainly in large volumes, individual protective equipment (IPE) must be used in a protection position. Users are supposed to know the construction material breakthrough time especially in case of long-term usage of personal IPE and in the situation when contamination of them is real. Studying connections between a chemical compound structure and the structure of IPE characterised by barrier materials enables us to understand present body protective devices protection quality and gives us an optionto choose barrier materials with targeted properties. In this article there are results of breakthrough time of isolating protection folio with a butyl rubber barrier layer in relation to chlorinated ethanes. This material is used for protection of specialists of both Fire Rescue Brigades and the Czech Armed Forces Chemical Corps. The PIEZOTEST device has been used for detection of permeated chemicals. The Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor is a part of PIEZOTEST device.
A COMPARISON OF THE NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF INDIVIDUAL OXIMES (HI-6, TRIMEDOXIME, K203) AND THEIR MIXTURES (HI-6 + TRIMEDOXIME, HI-6 + K203) IN CYCLOSARIN-POISONED RATS
Jiri Kassa, Jana Zdarova Karasova
2011, 12 - 20
The ability of three oximes (HI-6, trimedoxime, K203) to reduce cyclosarin-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the neuroprotective efficacy of two combinations of oximes (HI-6 + trimedoxime, HI-6 + K203) using a functional observational battery. Cyclosarin-induced neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effects of HI-6, trimedoxime or K203 alone and HI-6 combined with trimedoxime or K203 in rats poisoned with cyclosarin at a sublethal dose (80 μg/kg i.m.; 70% of LD50 value) were monitored by the functional observational battery at 24 hours and 7 days following cyclosarin challenge. The results indicate that all types of antidotal treatment are able to survive cyclosarin-poisoned rats 7 days following cyclosarin poisoning while one non-treated cyclosarin-poisoned rats died within 24 hours following cyclosarin challenge. All three oximes alone as well as both oxime mixtures combined with atropine were able to slightly decrease cyclosarin-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning but they did not eliminate all cyclosarin-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to reduce cyclosarininduced acute neurotoxicity was almost the same regardless of type of antidotal treatment. Thus, the tested combinations of oximes were not able to increase the neuroprotective effectiveness of antidotal treatment of acute cyclosarin poisoning compared to the individual oximes.
Vladimir Pavlik, Jana Fajfrova, Jan M. Horacek, Vaclav Safka, Pavla Krutisova, Miroslav Urban, Peter Urban, Jana Gazdackova, Petr Navratil
2016, 13 - 18
Syed M Nurulain, M Shafiullah
2012, 16 - 26
Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) are a wide group of compounds both structurally and functionally. Each OPC has a unique toxicological profile. The exposure to this type of poison is not limited only to certain occupationally exposed people but also to children, women, pregnant women; all have chances to be exposed to this poison. During the recent past years it has been reported in many poison epidemiological studies and case reports that exposure of OPCs during pregnancy caused malformed fetuses, neural tube defect (NTD) and shortening of pregnancy. The literature for animal models reveals inconclusive evidence. The generalized view is that they are neither teratogenic nor embryotoxic. But it is not true. There is a lack of systematic study and scarcity of reports on the topic. The present study was undertaken to investigate the teratogenicity induced by organophosphorus compounds in different animal models by literature review. Literature was searched by Toxicology Data NetWork (TOXNET), Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART), Toxicology Literature Online (TOXLINE), Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Pubmed Central, Entrez-Pubmed, Science Direct, Directory Of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), Google Scholar and International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS-INCHEM), Embase. The terms for literature search were teratogenicity, organophosphorus compounds; fetal toxicity, organophosphorus compounds; organophosphorus poisoning and pregnancy; organophosphorus poisoning and growth restriction; organophosphorus poisoning and IUGR; organophosphorus poisoning and reproduction; organophosphates and reproduction; pregnancy and organophosphates. The outcome of the study concludes that the work on teratogenicity induced by organophosphorus compounds was completely neglected, inconclusive, and only carried out on less than half of the OPCs available in the market. A more comprehensive and systemic study on the subject is clearly needed and its importance should not be ignored because more positive cases are being reported on the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of OPCs.
NON-NEWTONIAN SUSPENSION FORMULATIONS FOR IMPROVED STABILITY AND DELIVERY OF AUTOINJECTABLE CBRN COUNTERMEASURES
Andrew P-Z. Clark, Larry A. Cabell, Joe A. McDonough
2014, 18 - 27
Autoinjectors are commonly employed by the United States and other countries to deliver emergency therapeutics to counteract the effects of various chemical agent threats, including nerve agents. Autoinjector combination products (autoinjector and drug product) used by the military can have drawbacks, including insufficient thermal stability of drug products, limited aqueous solution concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and complicated and expensive designs for delivering multiple drugs simultaneously. We have developed a novel Enhanced Formulation (EF) technology that solves these problems, using nanoparticle suspensions in biocompatible cottonseed oil (CSO) instead of aqueous solutions of API. The hydrophobic CSO prevents hydrolytic degradation by limiting exposure to water, and the noninteraction of co-suspended particles simplifies multi-drug cocktail therapies. The high API loading (10% or more) gives the formulations non-Newtonian rheological behavior, with high zero-shear viscosity to resist sedimentation, and shear thinning to allow injection with standard autoinjectors and needles.
HUMULUS LUPULUS L. (HOPS) – A VALUABLE SOURCE OF COMPOUNDS WITH BIOACTIVE EFFECTS FOR FUTURE THERAPIES
Jana Olsovska, Vanda Bostikova , Martin Dusek, Vladimira Jandovska, Katerina Bogdanova, Pavel Cermak, Pavel Bostik, Alexandr Mikyska, Milan Kolar
2016, 19 - 30
Pavel Cech, Vladimir Bures, Karel Antos, Tereza Otcenaskova, Ales Macela, Petr Musilek
2011, 21 - 27
During emergency response operations many decisions have to be made. Information technologies provide possibilities for new tools to support decision makers in decisions that comprise of many critical factors and that require specialized knowledge. In these tools the complexity is tackled using modelling and simulations of possible scenarios of response operations. Today, conceptual modelling in the field of information technology is oriented on the ontological approach. Ontology is a shared vocabulary and an unambiguous machine processed specification of terms together with their relationships. The ontology can have the form of a taxonomy or classification, database schema or axiomatic theory. The ontological modelling can be utilized along with expert systems for decision support. Expert systems, in contrast to other approaches such as neural networks for instance, better reflect the domain knowledge and provide justification for the decision. The aim of this paper is to describe prerequisites and design general schema for decision support in response operations during biological incidents including the applicable technology.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TRANSABDOMINAL PREPERITONEAL APPROACH AND TOTAL EXTRAPERITONEAL APPROACH VERSUS OPEN REPAIR OF INGUINAL HERNIA
Radek Pohnan, Faye Rozwadowski, Leo Klein, Miroslav Ryska
2013, 25 - 31
Surgical repair of inguinal hernias is one of the most common surgical procedures performed. Since endoscopic inguinal hernia repair was first reported in 1990, the operation has been refined into an attractive alternative to open hernia repair for many patients and surgeons. Transabdominal preperitoneal approach (TAPP) and total extraperitoneal approach (TEP) are the most commonly used methods for miniinvasive inguinal hernia treatment. Employing the electronic databases MEDLINE, Pubmed and Ebscohost, these methods were compared with open techniques. Perioperative and postoperative complications, recurrent hernias and quality of life were evaluated. For patients with bilateral inguinal hernia or with recurrent inguinal hernia, endoscopic repair offers significant advantages over open techniques with regard to pain, recurrence risk and recovery. For unilateral primary hernias, either endoscopic or open tension - free repair with mesh can offer excellent and equivalent results.
Adela Straskova, Jiri Stulik
2012, 27 - 39
Intracellular pathogen F. tularensis is a causative agent of tularemia disease and belongs to the most hazardeous pathogen worldwide, categorized by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, USA (CDC) as a category A agent. However, no safe and licensed vaccine for prevention a F. tularensis infection is available for vaccination. Tularemia is manifested by several forms depending on a route of infection and virulence of a F. tularensis strain. Essential to a development of the disease is the ability to infect, survive and proliferate inside the mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages or dendritic cells. Therefore, this review will discuss aspects of F. tularensis intracellular fate within host macrophages, modulate host signaling pathways to benefit Francisella infection and finally, summarize bacterial determinats involved in the process of phagosomal escape and intracellular replication.
CYTOKINESIS-BLOCK MICRONUCLEUS (CBMN) ASSAY/CBMN CYTOME ASSAY IN HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES AFTER IN VITRO IRRADIATION AND ITS USE IN BIODOSIMETRY
Jaroslav Pejchal, Vladimira Vasilieva, Milena Hristozova, Zdenka Vilasova, Jirina Vavrova, Mitko Alyakov, Ales Tichy, Lenka Zarybnicka, Zuzana Sinkorova, Vojtech Tambor, Klara Kubelkova, Jiri Dresler
2011, 28 - 37
Aim: Cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and its comprehensive variant CBMN cytome assay are cytogenetic methods. CBMN is based on assessment of micronuclei in nucleated cells that have completed only one nuclear division. Besides micronuclei, CBMN cytome assay analyzes additional genotoxic (nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds), cytostatic (nuclear division index), and cytotoxic
(amount of necrotic and apoptotic cells) parameters. The aim of this study is to evaluate these parameters in human blood lymphocytes after in vitro irradiation and to assess its contribution to biodosimetry. Material and methods: Human blood from 6 donors was in vitro irradiated by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 Gy and cultivated for 72 hours. Blood lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and their cytokinesis was blocked by cytochalasin B. After cultivation, cultures were hypotonically treated, dropped onto glass slides and stained with Giemsa. Slides were evaluated by microscope. Results: We observed significantly increased amount of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds measured in binucleated cells, significantly increased amount of micronuclei measured in mononucleated cells and significantly decreased nuclear division index after irradiation by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy. Amount of death cells (apoptotic and necrotic) significantly increased after irradiation by 4 and 5 Gy. Conclusion: Although all parameters assessed by CBMN cytome assay have biodosimetric potential, practically feasible is only evaluation of micronuclei in binucleated cells. This parameter was used to construct in vitro linear-quadratic dose-response calibration curve which could be used as a biodosimetric tool for triage of radiation casualties.
Qing-Hua Wu, Zong-Hui Yuan, Xiu-Juan Zhang
2014, 28 - 33
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) can be activated by multiple environmental stress, leading to varied and contradictory cellular response. JNK mediates cell apoptosis as well as cell survival and proliferation. JNK1 and JNK2 as the major members are able to perform similar and distinct biological functions. This review mainly discussed the mechanism of JNK cell survival function and the distinct roles of JNK1 and JNK2 in cell apoptosis and proliferation. Transient JNK activation may be important for mediating a survival response in TNF-treated cells and chronic JNK activation may contribute to apoptotic response. Other signal transduction pathways may also participate in its protective function. Abrogation of p38 MAPK pathway is assumed to induce pro-survival role. JNK suppresses apoptosis via phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein BAD. Activated JNK inactivates suppressors of the apoptotic machinery, thereby “breaking the brake” on apoptosis.
Radek Pudil, Martina Vasatova, Alena Myslivcova Fucikova, Helena Rehulkova, Pavel Rehulka, Vladimir Palicka, Jiri Stulik
2016, 31 - 38
The natural history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) varies from an asymptomatic and benign clinical course to sudden premature death. Therefore, the new markers are searched with the aim to detect risk patients and improve their prognosis. The aim of this study was to test a cardiac multimarker testing strategy in detection of initial structural changes in patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In the group of 47 patients with nonobstructive HCM (58.4 ± 12.4 years, 12 emales) the mean left ventricle mass was 344.8 ± 129.9 g, the mean left ventricle mass index was 171.4 ± 60.2 g.m-2. We observed increased concentration of cardiac markers in peripheral blood: high sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT): median: 9 ng/L (IQR: 5 - 16 ng/L), vs. controls: 7 (5 - 9) ng/L, p 0.03; creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK MB): 2 (1.4 - 2.7) μg/L vs. 1.6 (1.1 - 2.2) μg/L, p 0.04; myoglobin 46.4 (33.3 - 65.2) μg/L vs. 35.6 (22.8 - 43.7) μg/L, p 0.001; heart type of fatty acid binding protein (hFABP): 1.8 (1.4 - 3.3) μg/L vs. 1.6 (1.3 - 2.1) μg/L, p 0.05; glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB): 3.9 (2.5 - 6.3) μg/L vs. 2.3 (1.9 - 4.2) μg/L, p 0.001. The analysis of the associations of left ventricle mass index and cardiac markers revealed its significant association with hFABP (r = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.07-0.66, p 0.01), CKMB (r = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.59, p 0.05), and with hsTnT (r = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.12 - 0.62, p 0.008). This study indicates potential clinical use of the multimarker testing in diagnosis and screening of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Jiri Patocka, Georg Petroianu, Kamil Kuca
2013, 32 - 38
Brodifacoum, a commercially available, long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide, is a highly toxic compound. Structurally it is similar to warfarin, but it is many times more potent, with the ability to cause severe bleeding in humans. Most of the health hazards of brodifacoum are associated with accidental ingestion. Superwarfarin intoxication may have no signs or symptoms other than bleeding at various sites. Brodifacoum has the potential to be used as a chemical warfare agent because of its high potency and long duration of action.
RAPID INFORMATIVE SCREENING OF NANO-ALAPTIDE AS POTENTIAL TRANSDERMAL PERMEATION ENHANCER OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID AND PARACETAMOL
Aneta Cernikova, Radka Opatrilova, Josef Jampilek
2014, 34 - 39
This investigation deals with the affection of permeation of acetylsalicylic acid and paracetamol applied in the system propylene glycol-water 1:1 through full-thickness pig ear skin by alaptide that was applied in nanonized form as a potential chemical penetration enhancer. Alaptide, (S)-8-methyl-6,9-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-7,10-dione, is the original Czech compound. The application of nanonized alaptide significantly enhanced the permeation of both drugs through the skin. Enhancement ratios in the studied time interval 0.5-2.0 h varied from 1.11 to 17.70 for acetylsalicylic acid and from 6.83 to 19.83 for paracetamol.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2011, 38 - 41
Phosgene oxime is an organic compound with the formula Cl2CNOH. It is a potent chemical weapon from the group of vesicants, specifically a nettle agent. Phosgene oxime is also known by its military designation, "CX". Phosgene oxime in both liquid and vapor forms causes severe pain and local tissue destruction on contact with eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.
Depending on the exposure, injury may be local or systemic. The effects of the poisoning occur almost immediately. No antidote for phosgene oxime poisoning is known. Generally, any treatment is supportive. Phosgene oxime is nonpersistent in the environment and not presents great bigger risk for animal nature.
2013, 39 - 40
Dear Sir, I would like to inform you, that, recently, scientific and educative effort of the Medical Corps of the Czech Armed Forces has achieved a significant result in the quality, deployability and sustainability process within field medical support area. Until 2010, all field military hospital units were certified according to the CREVAL scale considering deployability from logistic and military-operation aspects only. CREVAL scale has been omitting medical aspects, number of medical specialists and procedures for proper triage, treatment ...
2016, 39 - 43
The Syrian civil war is a shameful matter for the contemporary world. It is full of suffering for the civilian population and is one of the causes of the current huge migration of Syrian people in Europe. Suffering of people affected by the war is still escalating due to use of banned chemical weapons. The entire civilized world is appalled by the atrocities of the Syrian civil war.
2012, 40 - 44
Natural cholinesterase inhibitors were found in many biological sources: bacteria, blue-greens, plants, marine sponges, microscopic fungus, and in a smaller scale also in mushrooms, fruiting body of macroscopis fungus. Only cholinesterase inhibitors isolated from mushrooms are subjects of this minireview. These natural compounds with anticholinergic activity may be considered as prospective drugs against Alzheimer’s disease.
Jana Jurczykova, Milan Ruzicka, Petr Witt
2014, 40 - 44
The beginning of participation of Czech troops in a modern history of crisis management abroad dates back to 1990, when the first 200 soldiers of the Czechoslovak anti-chemical unit deployed to Kuwait. The Armed Forces of the Czech republic (CAF) formed from the Czechoslovak Armed Forces in 1992, and from the very beginning kept sending out its troops to foreign operations. An important part of any contingent is its medical support, consisting of a physician (or physicians), field nurses and stretcher-bearers/ambulance drivers. Until the recent past, no resident physician has ever been involved in foreign operation. And there was no reason for that as the CAF used to have plenty of board-certified physicians available. A change occured in 2008 by the operation of a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) assisting in Afghan Logar. This operation commenced in parallel with the ongoing operation in Kosovo, another major operation putting high demands on medical support. At the same time, residency training was prolonged to a period of five years. Lack of board-certified physicians therefore led to an idea of dispatching...
2013, 41 - 43
The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) is an interdisciplinary council for resuscitation medicine and emergency medical care. The main goal of this organization is to save the life and on the basis of knowledge and experiences to ensure high quality of resuscitation available to all. Preparation, development and publication of resuscitation guidelines for Europe (Guidelines 2010 lastly), organization of courses for both, lay- and professional rescuers, and organization of congresses, are the key activities of the ERC. The program of this year´s Congress was built with the intention to promote new technologies (especially cooling, feedback device and e.g.new application for SmartPhone, designed for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) training ...
2011, 42 - 43
From November 1 to November 5, 2010 I took part in a one-week Senior Medical Staff Officer Course at the NATO School in Oberammergau, Germany.
Oberammeragau is a small town with 5 000 inhabitants situated in the Bavarian Alps, near the wellknown ski resort Garmisch Partenkirchen. It lies in a very nice part of the Bavarian Alps, about 850 m above sea level. The current school building was used as army barracks as early as 1937 and during the Second World War it was converted to a factory where Messerschmitt aircrafts were produced. The facility has functioned as the NATO School since 2005. From November 1 to November 5 four parallel courses for different military specializations took place in the school. The total number of participants was more than 250. Fifty-six students from more than 30 countries participated in the Senior Medical Staff Officer Course.
Besides military medical service personnel, mainly physicians from NATO countries, military physicians from the Partnership for Peace countries were also present. The official language of the course was English. The aim of the course was to provide knowledge and detailed insight into NATO´s medical support policy. This included policy making in NATO, NATO medical doctrine, strategic force planning, multinational medical support options and relations with
Jaroslav Zdara, Zdenek Hrstka
2015, 42 - 47
2013, 44 - 44
Dr. Vackova, resident of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic, passed away October 11, 2012 as a result of a long battle with serious illness. Dr. Vackova was born in Policka, Czech Republic in 1953. She went School of Nursing and Pharmaceutical Faculty in Hradec Kralove. After completing her degree she joined Department of Epidemiology, the Military Medical Research Institute in Hradec Kralove. All the time she successfully participated in research projects of the microbiological laboratory, e.g. the selective contamination GIT in immunosuppressed patients. She defended her doctoral thesis in the end of 1992. Dr. Vackova devoted to the European ...
2016, 44 - 46
Geneva, Switzerland, celebrated a most remarkable 90th birthday jubilee. A highly respected Canadian surgeon who enjoys excellent mental and physical condition, and continues to perform the scientific and organizational work for which he has long been recognized throughout the world. A pioneer of medical emergency systems, Professor Gunn has contributed greatly to the emergence and evolution of Disaster Medicine, Humanitarian Medicine, and the expansion of surgical fields in developing and “third world” countries. He worked closely with officials for many countries and has continued this collaboration with Czech healthcare and medical educational institutions; most notably with Charles University in Prague and ...
Jan Misik, Ruzena Pavlikova, Jiri Cabal, Ladislav Novotny, Kamil Kuca
2011, 46 - 51
Usage and misusage of pesticides represent a health risk to military and civilian, especially to agricultural workers; also a possible terrorist threat is considered. The major route of low-volatility pesticides intoxication is percutaneous. Hence, skin permeation characteristics of pesticides are intensively investigated. In this study, in vitro measurement of skin permeation is presented on the example of pesticide paraoxon. Permeation experiments were performed in Franz-type of static diffusion cells using a pig skin. Paraoxon which permeated through the skin was determined enzymatically by modified Ellman‘s method. During 8 hours experiment, approx. 0.1 % of applied paraoxon has permeated through the skin. It was shown that pre-treatment by water simulating wet or sweated skin enhanced the paraoxon permeation.
FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS - 100 YEARS: TULAREMIA RESEARCH IN FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Ales Macela, Jiri Stulik, Zuzana Krocova, Michal Kroca and Klara Kubelkova
2012, 46 - 55
The history of national tularemia research started in 1936 when the first outbreak was recognized in south-east Moravia. Since then in average about one hundred cases have been recorded annually. As tularemia was endemic in former Czechoslovakia, three research groups which concentrated on this disease were formed during decades. The first two groups have worked from sixties and were associated with Jiri Libich (Prague) and Darina Gurycova (Bratislava). The third group which concentrated on the research of natural foci started during late seventies in Valtice (Zdenek Hubalek). The experimental research was, and still is, mainly associated with military research, recently with the Proteomic Center (Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence) in Hradec Kralove. This center opens molecular approaches to the analysis of Francisella tularensis microbes on one side and the studies on mutual host-pathogen interaction on the other side. One of the significant aims of the research is searching for the new typing and diagnostic markers of Francisella tularensis for the military and medical practice. Thus, scientists from former Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic contributed significantly to current knowledge on Francisella pathogenesis and their results were highly appraised by international scientific community.
Levent Kenar, Mesut Ortatatli
2013, 46 - 54
The deliberate use of chemical weapons has emerged as a significant threat especially in last decades, mainly after the terrorist attack on 11th September 2011, and the use of these agents in future wars and terror attacks still remains a realistic concern. Despite the existence of many conventions and aggreements like Chemical Weapons Convention and 1925 Geneva Protocol against the use of chem-bio weapons, they have been used in many wars and conflicts. From this point of view, other than civilian state hospitals, military hospitals should be aware and get prepared to manage the victims injured due to chemical weapons. Military hospitals must be prepared to give support to health care system as well as military troops in treating and preventing casualties resulting from chemical weapons. Moreover, military hospitals are required to possess protective suits, masks, antidotes and other drugs. This article summarizes some important aspects which might be useful not only for military hospitals but also for civilian hospitals and public health organizations.
Ales Macela, Jiri Stulik
2014, 46 - 51
The Institute of Molecular Pathology was founded on May 1, 1994 as a scientific centre of the Purkyne Military Medical Academy. During the twenty years of its existence the Institute has gained reputation of a qualified research centre focused on infection biology, clinical proteomic studies and biodefense. The advanced proteomics combined with cellular and molecular biology techniques and broad international collaboration have enabled the Institute to educate Ph.D. students at the highest possible level. Meetings, workshops, and conferences organized by the Institute have been attended by recognized scientists. The twentieth anniversary of the Institute foundation is a good opportunity to recap the results of its work.
2016, 47 - 47
2015, 48 - 48
On 17th December 2014, an anniversary day of birth of J.E. Purkinje, a ceremonial committee meeting of the Society of Military Physicians, Pharmacists and Veterinarians of the Czech Medical Association of J.E.Purkinje was held at the Faculty of Military Health Sciences of the University of Defence in Hradec Králové. On that occasion the merited and outstanding representatives of military medicine were awarded honorary membership diplomas. The founding members of the Society COL (retd.) Assoc. Prof. MUDr. Jiří Bajgar, DrSc., COL (retd.) MUDr. Milan Veselý, and COL (retd.) MUDr. Stanislav Konštacký, CSc., were awarded. In this way, the Committee of the Society has shown its appreciation and has honoured them for their longstanding work and outstanding...
Petra Maresova, Kamil Kuca
2015, 50 - 56
International terrorism becomes one of the most dangerous problems at the beginning of the 21st century. Terrorist attacks have serious impact on politics, economy, military as well as security forces, international law and legislation, and psychological issues. International terrorism is legally characterised not only as a threat to the life and property of individuals, but also as a worldwide threat to human civilization, social order, international public order and values. The aim of this contribution is to specify the incidence of terrorist attacks from 1970 to 2013 in European countries and to characterise their imminent impact on the number of casualties. Furthermore, the contribution aims to specify the type of these attacks, weapons employed in them and numbers of casualties corresponding to various types of weapons. The analysis was based on data from databases and existing studies. The monitored period witnessed a slow but steady increase in the incidence of terrorist attacks in the EU countries without any significant changes. The types of weapons employed in these attacks did not change much, either.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2016, 50 - 55
Sternutators are substances that irritate the nasal and respiratory passages and cause coughing, sneezing, lacrimation, and sometimes vomiting. They are organoarsenic compounds and some of them were used as warfare toxic gases in World War I, namely diphenylaminochloroarsine, diphenylchloroarsine, diphenylcyanarsine, and phenyldichloroarsine. The effect of these irritants is in principle non-lethal.
Marie Vackova, Irena Hanovcova, Jan Smetana, Roman Chlibek, Vanda Bostikova , Miroslav Splino
2011, 52 - 57
The air does contains microbial agents originally coming from the soil, water, plants or animals, including men. Temperature, light and humidity are the basic factors which has influence of microbial survival and abundance. Different microorganisms travel by aerial transmission and are involved in serious processes causing pneumonia and other diseases.
In our study we decided to investigate microbial load in air at the Transplant Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital of Hradec Králové, Czech republic for two years period. Air samples were taken from the patient’s breathing zone in the single rooms. Air was sampled with Biotest RCS Plus air sampler and material collected on the Total Count strips prepared with Tryptic Soy Agar.
The majority of air samples (54.2%) had microbial air load ≤ 100 CFU.m-3. Very low microbial air concentration from 15 to 30 CFU.m-3 was detected in the rooms before admission of new patients. Higher concentration was detected when medical staff was present in the room and investigation or treatment was carried out. The majority of microbial findings in the air were Gram-positive cocci (coagulase-negative staphylococci, Micrococcus spp., Sarcina spp.). Findings of Gram-negative stems were sporadic (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) as well as incidence of microscopic fungi (Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp.).
Georg A Petroianu, Gagani Athauda, Ferenc Darvas, Huba Kalasz & Dietrich E Lorke
2014, 52 - 58
SCREENING OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER PENETRATION USING THE IMMOBILIZED ARTIFICIAL MEMBRANE PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY AT THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PH
Jana Zdarova Karasova, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca
2013, 55 - 62
In this study, 21 structurally diverse drugs with examined central nervous system penetration were used for prediction of blood-brain barrier penetration using HPLC-UV instrument. Drugs’ chromatographic capacity factors were measured by the immobilized artificial membrane presented by phosphatidylcholine column. The correlation between chromatographic capacity factor, octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) and molecular polar surface area (PSA) were determined at the physiological pH. The correlation factor 0.6677 with respect to log P and 0.7199 in reference to PSA was assigned. The developed in vitro prediction method may be used as a screening tool for blood-brain barrier penetration of drugs with passive transport mechanism.
Snezana Cupara, Slobodan Jankovic, Ivana Arsic, Vanja Tadic and Vesna Jacevic
2012, 56 - 60
External application of seabuckthorn oil (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is difficult due to its liquid state in spite of its benefits for damaged skin. In order to overcome this inadequacy the semisolid emulsion with seabuckthorn oil was prepared. Previous research showed that this emulsion possessing an enhanced structure with liquid crystals showed a higher wound healing potential than seabuckthorn oil. The aim of this investigation was to characterize suitability of this emulsion for topical use. The emulsion was prepared by combining emulsifiers that form liquid crystals. Two different quantities of seabuckthorn oil were incorporated. Samples were prepared with 10% and 40% of seabuckthorn oil. Organoleptic characteristics were estimated visually and by smearing samples on a thin glass plate. Type of emulsion was determined by a conductometric method, while a pH value of the emulsion was measured by a pH meter. Samples of seabuckthorn emulsion were orange, semisolid, shiny, easily spreadable on skin, and the smear on the glass plate was homogeneous. There was an absence of smell and the emulsion could be rinsed by water after the application on skin, which is a desired characteristic of oil/water emulsions. Results of an electrical conductivity confirmed that an outer phase is water. Samples possesed an acceptable pH value for an external topical use. This research confirmed that constituents and a method used were suitable for preparing semisolid emulsion with seabuckthorn oil. Organoleptic properties, a pH value and a type of obtained emuslion appear to be adequate for topical use.
CURRENT ADJUSTMENTS IN TEACHING AND TRAINING STUDENTS AT THE FACULTY OF MILITARY HEALTH SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF DEFENCE
Milan Ruzicka, Vojtech Humlicek, Michal Potac, Jaroslav Zdara, Petra Vrtiskova
2016, 56 - 62
The University of Defence (UD) provides comprehensive education and training of students to get knowledge and skills which enable graduates to manage activities in the area of management and leadership. Formerly, the UD students received military and leadership skills especially within the military training outside the UD in basic training, in the Career course or the Specialized officer course at the Training Command - Military Academy (TC-MA) in Vyškov. Currently, the UD has included the Officer course into its own teaching curriculum, and thus bears a full responsibility for comprehensive preparedness of the UD graduates for their assignment to systemized positions in the Army of the Czech Republic (ACR).
DEPARTMENT OF TOXICOLOGY AND MILITARY PHARMACY – IMPORTANT PART OF THE FACULTY OF MILITARY HEALTH SCIENCES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DEFENCE
Jiri Bajgar, Jiri Kassa
2015, 57 - 66
The Department of Toxicology and Military Pharmacy (DTMF) as a part of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defense was founded in 1951. During more than sixty years of its existence, the Department has gained reputation of a highly qualified research centre focused on the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWA), development of antidotes including antidotal means for the Army, solving questions with medical protection against highly toxic agents and educational activities, both pre- and postgradual including international cooperation. Meetings and scientific conferences organized by the Department have been attended by recognized scientists. Its future activities are focused on further studies and development of medical countermeasures including means against effects of CWA preferably nerve agents. There is real and concrete contribution of the Department to the improvement of medical protection of armed forces against the effects of CWA.
Filip Zemek, Jana Zdarova Karasova, Kamil Musilek, Kamil Kuca
2011, 58 - 64
Plasma proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) play an important role in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of all endogenous or exogenous substances presented in the blood vessels. Their abundance in human blood not only helps to maintain hemostasis, but also makes them ideal candidates as transporters or possible depot reservoirs. Numerous
methods e.g. equilibrium dialysis, ultrafiltration. ultracentrifugation, high-performance affinity chromatography were introduced to determine potential interactions with plasma proteins and possible quantification.
In this work method was developed for the determination of drug-human serum albumin interactions and applied to obtain pharmacokinetic profile of AChE modulators prepared at the Faculty of Military Health Sciences. For method validation commercially used compounds HI-6 and obidoxime were chosen. HI-6 did not bind at all while obidoxime showed 7 % binding potency.
Petra Maresova, Vladimir Sobeslav, Kamil Kuca
2014, 59 - 66
Jiri Patocka, Rene Pita and Kamil Kuca
2012, 61 - 67
Gyromitra esculenta (Persoon ex Fries) mushrooms have been responsible for severe intoxications and even deaths. Clinical data are characterized primarily by vomiting and diarrhea and after a while by jaundice, convulsions and coma. Other Gyromitra species which may be of concern are G. fastigiata and G. gigas; nevertheless, recent advances in chromatography, biochemistry and toxicology have established that other species within the Ascomycetes may also prove toxic. Their toxins, mainly gyromitrin (N-methyl-N-formyl-N-acetyl-hydrazone) and their higher homologues are converted in the milieu of human stomach into N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine (MFH), then into N-methylhydrazine (MH). The toxicity of these latter chemicals, which are mainly hepatotoxic and even carcinogenic, has been established through in vivo and in vitro experiments with cell cultures and biochemical systems. Considering the chemical structure and the reactivity of these natural compounds, chemical and biochemical mechanisms are defined in order to explain their intrinsic biological activity. These findings imply that consumption of G. esculenta could present a carcinogenic as well as an acutely toxic health hazard.
Andreas Zaugg, Julien Ducry, Christophe Curty
2013, 63 - 68
Even though the use of microreactors for synthesising classical chemical warfare agents or other compounds scheduled in the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention) has not been published to date, the new technology has attracted the attention of the organic chemistry group of SPIEZ LABORATORY. Studies of the group show that in a few areas and sectors of chemistry, microreactors can provide a good alternative to the batch procedure. In classic warfare chemistry however, the technology can bring no benefits, since many reactions pro-duce a solid and are thus entirely unsuitable for microreactors.
Shreesh Ojha, Syed M. Nurulain, S. Dhanasekaran, Mohammad Shafiullah, Abdu Adem, Charu Sharma, Kamil Kuca, Huba Kalasz
2016, 63 - 68
2011, 65 - 71
Sonography, thanks to the miniaturization, is increasingly widespread as a bedside examination technique in both hospital and prehospital emergency care. A number of protocols were set up for its effective and fast usage. The article briefly depicts this method and the requirements and ways of its application in the emergency care.
THE USE OF IMMUNOENZYMATIC METHOD FOR DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN CZECH SOLDIERS RETURNING FROM AFGHANISTAN
Petra Strakova, Ivo Rudolf, Oto Pavlis, Zdenek Hubalek
2014, 67 - 72
In this work, we focused on detection of IgG antibodies in the blood sera from Czech soldiers returning from Afghanistan against selected zoonotic diseases by commercially available ELISA kits. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., complex of Rickettsia conorii, Leishmania infantum, hantaviruses and hepatitis E virus. Except for L. infantum (all persons were negative), we found following seroreactivity rate: 10 % in B. abortus, 11 % in C. burnetii, 20 % in Leptospira spp., 10 % in R. conorii and 4 % in both hepatitis E virus and hantaviruses.
Wilian A. Cortopassi,Teodorico C. Ramalho, Carlos A. M. Fraga, Iris Mangas, Kamil Kuca, and Tanos C. C. França
2015, 67 - 75
The bubonic plague or black plague is a zoonosis, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which quickly infects a great number of people, being able to decimate entire populations. This characteristic has turned plague into a dangerous biological warfare agent since the 16th century. Nowadays, the cure for plague is available; however the possibility of genetic engineering of Y. pestis strains could lead to the resurgence of this disease as a worldwide health problem of extreme gravity. In this work we have made a short resume and discussion on plague to provide readers with some information on its historical and clinical aspects, the currently used therapy and the potential of plague being used as a biological warfare agent nowadays.
Jaroslav Pejchal, Jan Österreicher, Jiri Kassa, Vaclav Marak, Ales Tichy, Zuzana Sinkorova, Lenka Zarybnicka, Klara Kubelkova and Kamil Kuca
2012, 68 - 75
The purpose of our study was to examine an early activation of JNK and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and their substrate c-Myc after soman poisoning in order to enlighten the pathogenetic mechanism of nerve agent-induced non-specific effects. Male Wistar rats were intramuscularly poisoned by soman (60 μg.kg-1 - 70% LD50). Samples were taken 4, 24, and 72 hours after poisoning, immunohistochemically stained and phospho-JNKThr-183/Tyr-185, phospho-p38Thr180/Tyr182, and phospho-c-MycThr58/Ser62 expressions were measured using a computer Image analysis in apical and cryptal enterocytes of the colon transversum. We observed decreased phospho-JNK in apical enterocytes 4 and 24 h after poisoning and increased phospho-JNK in cryptal and apical enterocytes 72 h after intoxication. Phosphop38 dropped significantly in the apical compartment 72 h after soman poisoning. An activation of c-Myc decreased in both apical and cryptal compartment 4 and 24 h after soman intoxication, while increased in both compartments 72 h after poisoning. Soman poisoning seems to temporarily suppress promitotic pathways of proliferating cryptal cells and causes delayed activation of JNK stress signaling pathway.
ANTHRAX COUNTER MEASURES 2013 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, ROYAL UNITED SERVICES INSTITUTE, LONDON, 4 FEBRUARY 2013
S.S. Vasan et al.
2013, 69 - 86
Anthrax is still a high threat biological agent, with historical precedence of potential terrorist use. While lack of human-to-human transmission may contain attacks in pockets, attacks can be multiple, coordinated and/or covert, therefore successful containment is heavily dependent on rapid identification after the smallest (possible) number of early cases, immediate and accurate statistical assessment of its geographic extent based on case histories, and a rapidly targeted prophylaxis strategy that considers both antibiotics and vaccine. Persistence of spores could lead to continued post-event threat, lack of guarantee that total decontamination has been achieved, fear of repeat attacks, concerns and disruptions to normal life, and tremendous loss to the economy. These considerations were among those that underpinned the recent ‘Anthrax Counter Measures 2013’ international conference held at the think-tank Royal United Services Institute, London, on 4 February 2013. Peer-reviewed abstracts of fifteen oral papers and nineteen posters presented in this conference are published as proceedings in this issue of the Military Medical Science Letters journal (ISSN 0372-7025). This meeting brought together academic, government and third sector organisations to debate key issues in anthrax counter measures under four themes: ‘What might happen? How will we know? How to respond? What does the future look like?’. Topics explored include injectional anthrax (the latest and fourth mode of infection), inhalational anthrax (which drives biodefence considerations like animal models, emergency preparedness, etc.), the role of US government agencies post-Amerithrax attacks (especially the Animal Rule and Project BioShield, and the first licensed product raxibacumab), current and emerging trends in detection and diagnostics, etc. Discussions took place on how to accelerate products from laboratory to field, how to make the most out of the currently licensed antibiotics and vaccines, and how to bridge the gap between science and frontline response to anthrax. More efforts are needed to quantify the overall burden of the Amerithrax attacks, including the impact on tourism and business showdowns or diversions. This will enable governments to demonstrate value for taxpayer money and identify gaps through initiatives such as the annual preparedness index, shelf-life extension programmes, etc. Continued fiscal pressures could also encourage like-minded friendly governments to share resources and stockpiles, leading to other benefits such as increased resilience and cooperation.
Martina Vrbova, Eva Dastychova, Tomas Rousar
2016, 69 - 74
The kidneys are one of the organ that can be commonly damaged by a number of toxic compounds (heavy metals, xenobiotics, drugs, etc.). To characterize the mechanism of toxicity, a variety of methods have been developed. The in vitro methods belong among the mostly used. Especially, the use of cell lines seems to be the leading approach to test and to characterize the toxicity mechanisms. At present, several cell lines of animal (from rat, dog, pig) or human origin are available. A detailed evaluation must go before any selection of a suitable cell line for experiments. Therefore, the aim of this review was to describe and to evaluate the mostly used renal cell lines.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2011, 72 - 79
Riot control agents are highly potent sensory irritants of relatively low toxicity that produce dose and time-dependent acute site-specific toxicity. These compounds have been referred to as transient incapacitating agents or as lacrimators, and in common parlance they are known as "tear gases". These compounds interact pharmacologically with sensory nerve receptors associated with mucosal surfaces and the skin at the site of contamination, resulting in localized discomfort or pain with associated reflexes. This biological response, e.g. ocular irritation, results in pain in the eye and excess reflex lacrimation and blepharospasm. Riot control agents have both civil and military applications and have been classified as either military chemicals or chemical warfare agents. Non-lethal or less lethal weapons have become increasingly popular for law enforcement use when confronting dangerous, combative individuals in the field, include riot control agents. Many incapacitating agents were developed during the Cold War. Oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray, an extracted resin from Capsicum pepper plants, was first developed in the 1970s as an alternative to CS (2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile) and CN (chloroacetophenone) agents. Most recently, a synthetic form of capsaicin, PAVA (pelargonic acid vanillylamide), gained popularity as a defensive aerosol in the early 1990s. Chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of PAVA are discussed in this paper.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2014, 73 - 82
Respiratory irritants are substances which can cause inflammation or other adverse reactions in the respiratory system (lungs, nose, mouth, larynx and trachea) after being inhaled. Depending on the type and amount of irritant gas inhaled, victims can experience symptoms ranging from minor respiratory discomfort to acute airway and lung injury and even death. The lungs are susceptible to many airborne irritants. A common response cascade to a variety of irritant gases includes inflammation, edema and epithelial sloughing which, left untreated, can result in scar formation and pulmonary and airway remodeling. There are hundreds of substances that can pollute air and harm lungs. Harmful gases and chemicals are just one type of airborne pollutants that can adversely affect the lungs. Examples of respiratory irritants include, for example, chlorine, amonium, ozone, sulphur dioxide or nitrogen oxides. These substances, their sources of exposure, physical and other properties, and effects on the victim are summarized in this article.
2016, 75 - 79
New and modern techniques of drug design are extensively used in parallel or instead of the classic ones. Applicability of virtual screening (VS) is growing with the computational performance. This article includes list and short description of most frequent used methods in VS. These methods are divided into two groups – ligand-based VS and structure-based VS. Ligand based methods include chemical similarity, pharmacophore and quantitative structure-activity relationship. Molecular docking and scoring are methods of the structure-based VS.
Jan Marek, Petr Stodulka, Ondrej Soukup, Kamil Musilek, Jiri Cabal and Kamil Kuca
2012, 76 - 81
Cationic tensides are a widespread group of surface active agents. These compounds have lots of applications in various branches of industry and research. Quaternary isoquinolinium salts differing in alkyl chain length are members of a cationic surfactant group with quaternary nitrogen in its structure. The members of this group can be used as micellar catalysts or disinfectants. Decontamination (chemical warfare agents) or disinfection (bacteria or fungi) for very similar compounds was described several times. In this work, the preparation of isoquinoline-derived cationic surfactants differing in the length of the side alkylating chain from C8 to C20 is described. An HPLC method used for distinction of all prepared long-chain isoquinolinium analogues has been successfully developed.
2015, 76 - 77
2015, 78 - 79
Kamil Kuca, Kamil Musilek, Jana Karasova, Daniel Jun, Ondrej Soukup, Miroslav Pohanka, Kallol Kumar Ghosh, Martina Hrabinova
2011, 80 - 84
Searching for the universal oxime, which could be able to reactivate acetylcholinesterase inhibited by various nerve agents is still topic of high interest. In this contribution, oxime HLö-7, that was thoroughly discussed in the last decade, is evaluated . Its universality was tested in vitro using the rat brain homogenate as a source of the cholinesterases. The main members of the nerve agent family (tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin and VX) were used for this purpose. As shown, oxime HLö-7 was able to reactivate cholinesterases inhibited by all tested nerve agents with the exception of tabun. Hence, it could not be designated as the broad-spectrum reactivator.
2015, 80 - 81
2016, 80 - 88
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which causes disease in insects. Currently it is used as an insecticide to control pest populations. Fungi are known to produce a vast array of secondary metabolites that are important for biotechnological applications. Furthemore, B. bassiana is an interesting source of biologically active molecules. There are alkaloids with the structure of 2-pyridone, dibenzoquinone pigments and different cyclodepsipeptides. Cyclodepsipeptides from B. bassiana are interesting for their neuroprotective properties. Interest of psychopharmacology is focused on the group of beauveriolides. Plant B. bassiana becomes a candidate for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
2012, 82 - 83
It was with great interest and pleasure that I read the contribution of Patocka et al. in the MMSL reviewing the literature on anatoxin-A(s) an Organophosphorus Cholinesterase Inhibitor (OP) of natural origin produced by cyanobacteria (formerly identified as algae). Anatoxin-A(s), a phosphate ester of imidazole (Figure 1), is a very interesting substance that lacking the ability to cross the bloodbrain-barrier selectively and irreversibly inhibits the cholinesterases ...
NATO ADVANCED RESEARCH WORKSHOP: HOSPITALS UNDER FIRE - PLANNING AND OPERATING A HOSPITAL UNDER FIRE AND EXTREME CIRCUMSTANCES
Leo Klein, Moshe Michaelson, Gila Hyams
2015, 82 - 92
Whether caused by terrorism or natural disasters, mass casualties have become a contingency that must be faced by all hospitals, regardless of size. The objective of this NATO supported workshop was to bring together experts in the field of trauma medicine and trauma health care services, both military and civilian, to discuss methods for providing timely, effective, and efficient health care in mass casualty situations. Issues discussed included, but were not limited to: (1) hardening existing infrastructure or building new infrastructure (including communication and computer infrastructure) to resist damage from terrorism, or man-made/natural disasters, (2) use of disaster simulations and drills to prepare for mass casualties, (3) use of field hospitals to provide point-of-injury care, and (4) health care logistics for mass casualty events. Given that mass casualty situations are not everyday occurrences, the workshop also addressed the issues of cost of constant readiness, and cost of infrequent use. Preparing for mass casualty situations represents a complex sociopolitical, organizational and logistical problem. It requires co-operation at multiple levels of government and among both civilian and military health care services. A mass casualty event can occur at any time, which makes preparedness not only essential, but also an urgent precondition.
Leo Klein, Josef Fusek
2014, 83 - 84
2012, 84 - 86
The story behind today’s training-system for doctors serving in the French Armed Forces is embedded in a series of establishments each of which has left its mark in history, maintained the closest links with centres of improvisation, and instilled in its students a deep sense of attachment.
It was at the very beginning of the 18th century that the first such establishment dedicated to military doctors appeared in France. It strove unceasingly to adapt itself not only to the needs of the military, but to the advancement and established use of knowledge pertinent to the changing conditions of military service.
Since then, piecemeal evolution finally resulted in the amalgamation of 2011 when, on the 2nd July, one single institution responsible for basic medical training was constituted --- the Defence School of Medicine (ESA). Its inauguration co-incided with the closure of the two Military Medical ...
THOMAS PROFT (ED.). MICROBIAL TOXINS: CURRENT RESEARCH AND FUTURE TRENDS. UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND PUBLISHING, NEW ZEALAND 2009, VIII + 192PP. ISBN: 978-1-904455-44-8.
2011, 85 - 87
Toxins are important virulence factors responsible for microbial pathogenicity. Potential applications of toxin research extend beyond simply combating microbial virulence and include the development of novel anti-cancer drugs and other front-line medicines. No less important is the use of toxins as tools in cellular biology and neurobiology. Understanding toxin molecular and cellular biology is critical for the development of new anti-toxin strategies, particularly for those with bioterrorism capability. This well worked book not only provides a general overview of toxins but elucidates in detail recent molecular approaches, achievements and refreshing perspective on the future studies of these molecules. The book is divided into nine chapters and each chapter is written by internationally respected scientists. ...
2014, 85 - 85
MAIN TOPICS: News in vaccination 2014, Invasive bacterial diseases, Rotavirus gastroenteritis, Human papillomavirus diseases, Therapeutic cancer vaccines, Selected case reports in vaccination, Controversies in vaccination, Current problems of vaccination in selected diseases, Vaccination against exanthema diseases.
2014, 86 - 86
MAIN TOPICS: Influenza and new respiratory viral agents, Viral emerging infections, Viral congenital and neonatal infections, Viral blood born infections, Anthropozoonoses of viral origin, Viral gastroenteritis, Viruses and immunosuppressed host, Viral pathogenesis and immunity, Viral diagnosis, Viruses and oncogenesis, New antiviral agents, Strategies and progress in viral vaccines, Molecular epidemiology, Quality assurance in virology laboratory.
Leo Klein, Vlasta Neklapilova
2013, 87 - 91
On 28th November 2012, the Social Health Academy, the Regional Emergency Medical Service, and the Department of Military Surgery at the University of Defence together held a workshop on States of Preparedness for Emergency- and Mass-Casualty Situations (MCS). The speakers were Dr. Moshe Michaelson (Director, Teaching Centre for Trauma, Emergency and Mass-Casualty Situations) and Mrs. Gila Hyams, RN (Director of Nursing and Trauma Co-ordinator) at the Rambam Hospital in Haifa, Israel. Altogether, thirty medical ...
2014, 87 - 87
The Bulgarian Toxicological Society edited a book “Problems of Toxiclogy”. This book includes reports which were presented at the Fourth National Congress of Clinical Toxicology with International Participation and Annual Meeting of Bulgarian Toxicological Society, which were held in Sofia, Military Medical Academy, Bulgaria, from 7th to 8th November, 2013...
2011, 88 - 88
On 18th May 2011, a ceremonial committee meeting of the Society of Military Physicians, Pharmacists and Veterinarians of the Czech Medical Association of J.E.Purkinje was held at the Faculty of Military Health Sciences of the University of Defence in Hradec Králové. On that occasion the merited and outstanding representatives of military medicine were awarded honorary membership diplomas. The founding members of the Society COL (ret.) Assoc. Prof. RNDr. et PhMr Vladimír Měrka, CSc., COL (ret.) Prof. MUDr. Miroslav Špliňo, DrSc, and COL (ret.) Prof. MUDr. Josef Fusek, DrSc, dr.h.c., were awarded. In this way, the Committee of the Society ...
Jaroslav Zdara, Petr Kral, Bozena Vasinova, Lada Kovarova
2016, 89 - 91
Military Training Area Libava was the venue for the 16th Military Medical Services Conference. This event has a long tradition and it became an integral part of military education actions. We can say, that the level of the conference is gradually improving year by year...
Vesna Jacevic, Goran Jokic, Viktorija Dragojevic-Simic, Dubravko Bokonjic, Slavica Vucinic, Marina Vuksa
2011, 90 - 96
The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of sodium selenite in mice and rats after per os application to establish the relationship between a high toxic dose of sodium selenite and tissue alterations in rats. Increasing doses of sodium selenite (4, 10, 14 and 18 mg/kg) were administered in separate groups of mice and rats. Obtained LD50 values of sodium selenite in mice and rats were in the range of 8.08 to 12.11 mg/kg po. In separate groups of rats of both genders, sodium selenite in a dose of 10 mg/kg po was applied. Survived animals were sacrificed after the end of day 7 and an increase of fluids in thoracal and abdominal cavities was recorded. Tissue samples of the heart, liver, spleen and kidney were prepared using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Histopathological examination revealed the signs of inflammation, haemorrhages, degeneration and rapid loss of normal cell architecture in the heart, liver, spleen and kidney of sodium selenite treated animals. These and other available data suggest the possibility of using environmentally friendly selenite rodenticide. These compounds which possess a different mechanism of action when compared to anticoagulants and an acceptable toxic potential, could improve rodent pest management programs, especially regarding anticoagulant-resistant rodents.
Milan Ruzicka, Vojtech Humlicek, Petr Witt
2012, 90 - 95
In recent years, experience from the conduct of operations has shown changes in their contemporary leadership. Increasingly, asymmetric operations step to the fore. The medical support of these operations is one of conditions for their success. Results of exploratory research methods indicate the need for adjustments with regards to education, training as well as organization of medical support of the tactical units within asymmetric operations.
Amanda R. Furman, Teresa L. Garrett, Christine M. Rapp, David G. Watson, James B. Lucot
2014, 90 - 96
Poisoning from chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin is associated with neuronal degeneration. This damage is thought to result from glutamatergic excitotoxicity such as seen following kainic acid induced seizures. In order to search for novel neuroprotectants it is necessary to select good mouse models for susceptibility to nerve agent-induced seizures and the resulting neurodegeneration. The mouse strains tested (C57BL/6, ICR, DBA/2, SW, and FVB/N, Harlan Laboratory) had widely different sensitivity to sarin as shown by differences in the dose required resulting in 50% mortality, LD50. Differences also were observed among the strains in Fluoro-Jade C staining with the C57BL/6 and DBA having little to no staining when euthanized at 7 days whereas the other strains did. Differences in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity were found among the strains as well. The ICR strain was excluded from the FOB and weight data due to difficulty getting a consistent LD50. Weight loss and FOB scores were similar for all strains. All strains had inhibited AChE activity after sarin exposure and exhibited inhibition of CNS BuChE after sarin exposure but only ICR and SW reached significance.
2013, 92 - 92
University Hospital Hradec Králové in cooperation with Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Hradec Králové, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defense, Hradec Králové organizing 18th Interdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicology Conference TOXCON 2013.
Petr Zuja, Zdenek Skalican, Pavel Otrisal
2013, 94 - 101
Personnel decontamination belongs to one of the crucial measurements performed to personnel´s protection within hazard management after either employment of Weapons of Mass Destruction or leakage of Toxic Industrial Materials. Suitable personnel, technical and material conditions corresponding to current demands and trends are necessary to create its realization in this area. Knowledge gained within solution problems of personnel decontamination, casualty decontamination, immobile people decontamination, decontamination of personnel weapons, selected Individual Protective Equipment, personnel garments, accoutrements and other materials with the usage of modular elements are summarized in this paper. A conceptual proposal of solution of a mobile decontamination system for personnel decontamination is also stated in this paper.
Namrata Singh, Ondrej Soukup, Rafael Dolezal, Zdenek Fisar, Bhanushree Gupta, Kallol K. Ghosh, Kamil Kuca
2015, 94 - 103
The present article is aimed at determination of acid dissociation constants (pKa), lipophilicity (logP) and hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and donor (HBD) counts of some novel xylene-linked bispyridiniumoxime based AChE reactivators. The choice was supported by their use in the therapy of acute intoxication with organophosphorus AChE inhibitors. UV-Vis spectrophotometry has been used to measure experimental pKa values at 27°C, while software Marvin Sketch (chemaxon) has been used to estimate structure based computational pKa, logP values and hydrogen bonding parameters. The results were compared with standard oximes (HI-6 and obidoxime) under similar conditions. All the calculated pKa values lie in the range of 7.45-9.85 which is well in agreement with most of the oxime reactivators studied so far.
Vanda Bostikova, Kamil Kuca, Radek Sleha, Markéta Pasdiorova, Jan Marek, Hana Stritecka, Vladimir Hytych, Pavel Bostik
2016, 94 - 103
In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. The Zika virus disease is caused by a virus (family Flaviviridae) transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. People with the Zika virus disease usually have symptoms that can include a low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, malaise, headache and retro-ocular headaches. Neurological and autoimmune complications have been described during the outbreaks in Polynesia and recently in Brazil. There are no licensed medical countermeasures - vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs available for the Zika virus infection and disease.
Jan Misik, Ruzena Pavlikova, Jiri Cabal, Denis Josse, Kamil Kuca
2012, 96 - 99
The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of selected detergents (althosan MB 50%, triton X) and one commercial decontamination mean (Argos™) to permeate the pig skin, which could indicate a potential toxic side effect of mass casualty decontaminants. A method of static diffusion cells and UV spectrometry was used to evaluate the skin permeation. All tested agents did not permeate the skin in detectable amounts as 5% water solutions. In concentrated form, triton X and Argos™ did not permeate the skin whereas althosan MB 50% shown specific permeation rate of 6.134 μg.cm-1 in 24 hours.
Jana Zdarova Karasova, Kamil Kuca, Daniel Jun, Jiri Bajgar
2011, 97 - 102
Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 184.108.40.206) is currently under advanced development as a pretreatment for organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in human. It was shown to protect mice, rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys against multiple LD50 challenges of OPs nerve agents intoxications. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of the pretreatment by the human BChE in blood and brain after intramuscular intoxication by Russian VX agent (RVX). Purified human BChE was administered intraperitoneally (500 U/kg) 30 minutes before a single dose of RVX corresponding to 1 LD50 (15 μg/kg). Changes in cholinesterases activities were assessed by standard Ellman’s method.
In conclusion, BChE was not able to absolutely protect acetylcholinesterase against inhibition in blood. On the other hand it was able to reduce toxic effect of RVX in brain. The protection of cholinesterases in brain is important in prophylaxis, because brain damage is inconsistent with survival of intoxicated organisms.
Shreesh Ojha, Charu Sharma, Syed M Nurulain
2014, 97 - 103
Organophosphorus (OP) is a large group of compounds with a wide variety of applications. The group comprises insecticides, pesticides and nematicides etc. in addition to deadly poison OP warfare chemicals like sarin and tabun. Thousands of casualties have been reported globally each year by the unintentional and intentional use of OP compounds. Uses of deadly poison OP like sarin by terrorists groups and irresponsible regimens have been documented as well. The threat always exists. The mainstream therapy includes administration of atropine, pralidoxime and bezodiazepines in addition to general supportive measures. Despite this standard therapy, the mortality rates of OP poisoning are still high. Different approaches and methodologies have been postulated and introduced as an alternative to standard therapy but none could replace the existing standard therapy. The present short review examined the possibility of usage of antihistamines as alternate to atropine. Pros and cons have been discussed. The study suggests that some of the first generation antihistamines like promethazine and diphenhydramine may be effectively used as antidote for OP poisoning depending upon the degree of poisoning. They may have several advantages like inexpensive, systematically and centrally acting anticholinergic antihistamines, readily crosses bloodbrain barrier, and large quantities of the drug exist in most hospitals and pharmacies, providing a reservoir in the event of a mass casualty event. However, further clinical studies and evidences are warranted.
2012, 100 - 112
The most complex topic is represented by operative treatment of type IV lesions of rotator cuff. Palliative arthroscopic resection of rotator cuff did not produce optimal results. We thus intend to evaluate the newly implemented surgical techniques at our department.
Fifty-six patients with type IV rotator cuff lesions were treated surgically between October 2007 and December 2010. In 6 patients, combined operations had to be performed because of their pathology, and these were not included in detailed evaluation. The population selected for detailed evaluation of new surgical techniques included 50 patients (mean age: 59 years, range: 41–73 years). The patients were randomized into two subpopulations, each formed by 25 people. Both subpopulations can be considered representative and comparable.
All operations were performed in the “beach-chair” position in general anesthesia or/and in interscalenic block. After type IV lesion was diagnosed, the prespecified surgical procedure followed – partial muscle transfer of subscapularis muscle tendon (Karas) or partial non-anatomic rotator cuff reconstruction (Burkhart). The results were evaluated after 6 months using the modified Constant Functional Score. The following parameters were assessed: sex, age, side of the operation, dominance of the limb, Constant Functional Score pre-operatively and post-operatively, subjective and objective evaluation, pain, activities, movement and muscle strength, Constant Score improvement, improvement in its individual items and subitems, pain pre-operatively and post-operatively.
In older patients with type IV lesions, we have good experience with Karas method while in younger and more active patients, Burkhart method seems to be more useful.
Brian J. Bennion, Edmond Y. Lau, Jean-Luc Fattebert, Patrick Huang, Eric Schwegler, William Corning, Felice C. Lightstone
2013, 102 - 114
Traditional chemical weapon agents (CWAs) are known to bind acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Their lethality is known to be different for different mammalian species. We have modeled the binding affinity of CWAs to AChE and BuChE in human, rabbit, rat and mouse using molecular docking and free energy calculations. Through molecular docking we are able to correctly bind the CWAs at the active site. Using molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MMGBSA) calculations, we determined the binding free energy in the active site. Through these calculations, we observe that correct orientation at the active site is critical to binding.
Jan M. Horacek
2011, 103 - 117
Cardiotoxicity is a well-known and potentially serious complication of oncology treatment. Anthracyclines and high-dose chemotherapy especially regimens containing high-dose Cyclophosphamide represent the greatest risk. Early detection of cardiotoxicity is crucial for applying preventive and supportive therapeutic strategies. Various methods have been recommended for monitoring of cardiotoxicity. In our conditions, echocardiography and electrocardiography are routinely used. However, this approach shows low sensitivity for the early prediction of cardiomyopathy when the possibilities of appropriate management could still improve the patient’s outcome.
Recently, biomarkers of cardiac injury have been investigated in the assessment of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiospecific biomarkers, such as cardiac troponins, show high diagnostic efficacy in the early subclinical phase of the disease before the clinical onset of cardiomyopathy. The increase in their concentrations correlates with disease severity. As for natriuretic peptides, some studies, including ours, have shown promising results. Definitive evidence of their diagnostic and prognostic role in this context is still lacking and natriuretic peptides have not been routinely used for monitoring of cardiotoxicity in clinical practice. Other perspective biomarkers of cardiotoxicity in oncology are under study, especially heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) and glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB). Our studies using GPBB have brought priority and encouraging results. However, the available data are limited and their practical use in this context cannot be recommended until their clinical efficacy is clearly defined.
The author presents his own experience with multiple biomarkers of cardiac injury in the detection of cardiotoxicity associated with conventional and high-dose chemotherapy for hematological malignancies.
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF USNIC ACID AND OCTYL GALLATE AGAINST RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS STRAINS
Rudolf Kukla, Jaroslava Mazurova, Vanda Bostikova, Radek Sleha, Eva Slehova, Sylva Janovska, Vaclava Adamkova
2014, 104 - 113
The genus Enterococcus is represented by some of the clinically important species and is well known for its antibiotic resistance, which participates in colonization and infection. Increasing resistance of enterococci has been evoked due to the excessive use of antibiotics not merely for therapeutic purposes or in indicated cases. One of the promising possibilities how to reduce the use of great amount of antibiotics is to utilize antimicrobial properties of natural substances. Usnic acid is a lichen compound possessing antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria including enterococci. Octyl gallate, gallic acid ester, has significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. This study was focused on the evaluation of resistant enterococci susceptibility to usnic acid and octyl gallate in comparison with control group of enterococci. Antibacterial activity of usnic acid and octyl gallate was defined as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC value). Usnic acid inhibited all tested enterococci in concentration range 4.7-37.5 mg.L-1. MIC values of octyl gallate for all tested enterococci ranged between 37.5-150 mg.L-1. In contrast to octyl gallate, bactericidal activity of usnic acid was not confirmed. Antibacterial activities of tested compounds were almost equal among resistant enterococci and control group of enterococci exhibiting great potential of usnic acid and octyl gallate for treatment of enterococcal infections.
DEOXYNIVALENOL, A TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXIN: REVIEW OF ITS MASKED FORM, CONTAMINATION IN CEREAL-BASED FEED, AND MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYTICAL METHODS
Xiujuan Zhang, Deyu Huang, Dan Wan, Qinghua Wu
2015, 104 - 114
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin regularly occurring in cereals. It is toxic to humans and inhibits DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Moreover, its conjugated products, called masked mycotoxins, including DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G), is another “emerging” food safety issue in recent years. In this review, we first discussed the nature of contamination of masked DON in cereal-based food and feed; moreover, the new reported masked DON is summarized and we also focused on its toxicity and digestion in human and animal bodies. In addition, the contamination of DON in cereal-based feed in different countries was summarized and some regular patterns of DON occurrence are suggested. Finally, the LC-MS methods for the determination of DON and masked DON in food, feed and animal fluids were compared. This review will provide further information for DON and masked DON contamination and shed some light on the mycotoxin control strategies.
EXPRESSION OF p21 AND EXPRESSION AND ACTIVATION OF MAPK REGULATED TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS IN RATS AFTER WHOLE-BODY γ-RADIATION AND ITS USE IN BIODOSIMETRY
Jaroslav Pejchal, Sarka Pruchova, Klara Kubelkova, Ales Tichy, Jirina Vavrova
2016, 104 - 110
The aim of our study was to examine the in vivo expression of p21 and expression and activation of ATF-2, c-Myc, and CREB in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after whole body γ-irradiation and to assess its contribution to biodosimetry. For Western blot experiments, male Wistar rats were whole-body irradiated by a single dose of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 Gy (60Co, 1 m, 0.7 Gy/min). As a positive control, leukaemic MOLT-4 cells were used. For ELISA experiments, male Wistar rats were whole-body irradiated by a single dose of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy (60Co, 1 m, 0.6 Gy/min). Blood samples were taken 4 h after the irradiation and PBMC were isolated using centrifugation on Histopaque-1077. Expressions of p21, ATF-2, phospho-ATF-2Thr69/71, c-Myc, phospho-c-MycThr-58/Ser62, CREB, and phospho-CREBSer133 were measured using Western blot method. Expression of p21 was also quantified using ELISA. We observed increase of p21 expression in rat PBMC 4 h after irradiation. According to ELISA, p21 levels increased 2.0-, 3.1-, 5.5-, 3.0-, and 3.1fold after irradiation by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy, respectively. We did not detect any expression or activation of ATF-2, c-Myc and CREB. Protein p21 could be considered as a perspective biodosimetric marker of clinically significant irradiation (≥1 Gy) in vivo in unstimulated PBMC.
Haskova Katerina, Dyrhonova Marketa, Bostikova Vanda
2016, 111 - 120
Fecal microbiota therapy is going through its renaissance period. Even in ancient China, stool and its derivats were used for therapy of various diseases. Now thanks to new molecular methods a new knowledge about the intestinal microbiome and its interference with the human physiology, this method can be used for concrete therapy of disease.
POSSIBILITIES OF THE QCM METHOD EMPLOYMENT TO DETERMINATION OF TOXIC COMPOUND CONCENTRATION IN DEPENDENCE OF BARRIER MATERIALS RESISTANCE
Pavel Otrisal, Stanislav Florus
2012, 113 - 118
This paper points to some aspects of possible usage of a QCM method within a set of toxic compounds permeated concentration based on a permeation curves rate and after underdone calibration of a measurement system. Presented assesses can be used not only in favour of the Czech Armed Forces Chemical Corps specialists but subsequently also in favour of personnel protection for those working in an area with toxic compounds appearance.
Qing-Hua Wu, Guang-Xu Wu, Yun Wang, Dan Wan, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Zong-Hui Yuan
2014, 114 - 119
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins in contaminated food and feed worldwide. It is toxic to humans and inhibits DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. In this review, the metabolism of DON and its exposure in humans from different regions are summarized. Conjugated products DON-3-glucuronide, DON-15-glucuronide, and DON-7-glucuronide are found to be the major metabolites in humans. Human exposure of DON shows some regional differences due to the different DON levels in cereal-based foods and the food intake habits. C12,13-deepoxy metabolite, DOM-1 can be found in most French populations but is rarely detected in UK adults. Spanish exposes lower DON levels than the UK populations. A very high DON exposure is detected in South Africa and Linxian, China. Fetus is shown to expose to DON during pregnancy in human. This review will provide global information of DON metabolism and exposure in humans and facilitate the mycotoxin control strategies.
2013, 115 - 119
The military incapacitating agent BZ (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate) is an anticholinergic compound that acts at both, the peripheral and central nervous system. Effects of the agent were discovered during the Cold War and BZ became one of the most potent anticholinergic psychomimetics, characterized by low effective doses causing long-term incapacitation. History, characteristics and potential use of BZ in behavioral research are discussed throughout this review.
AGENTS FOR DEFENSE AGAINST CHEMICAL WARFARE: REACTIVATORS OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITED WITH NEUROTOXIC ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
Petronilho, E. C., Figueroa-Villar, J. D.
2015, 115 - 127
The chemical warfare agents and neurotoxic agents are an important threat to people all over the world, and require special attention because they are highly dangerous. Most of these agents are neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OP), which inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is responsible for controlling the transmission of nerve impulses. To be inhibited by these compounds, AChE can sometimes be reactivated using cationic oximes, which are the most used substances for this reactivation. Until today there have not been discovered agents for complete treatment of poisoning by all OPs. For this reason, the treatment of intoxicated people requires the determination of the absorbed OP, in order to select the appropriate activator, a process that usually requires long time and may cause death. Therefore, this study aims to do a review on the OPs used as chemical warfare agents and the process of inhibition and reactivation of AChE, especially to motivate the development of new agents for defense against chemical weapons, a process that is very important for protecting all humanity.
THE DISULFIDE BOND FORMATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO BACTERIAL PATHOGENICITY OF THREE IMPORTANT GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
Iva Senitkova, Petra Spidlova, Lenka Hernychova, Jiri Stulik
2011, 118 - 128
Disulfide bond formation is necessary for a correct folding and a proper function of many secreted proteins. We know that many of these proteins are involved in bacterial virulence and pathogenesis. The best known pathways of disulfide bond formation and isomerization belong to Escherichia coli (E. coli). This Gram-negative bacterium is usually used as a model organism. This review is aimed initially at introduction to E. coli oxido-reductase enzymatic system. The next part is interested in proteins resembling these from E. coli and their relation to virulence and pathogenesis. We have choosen three important Gramnegative pathogens, Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis), because of their high virulence, infectivity, ability to cause severe infections and absence of appropriate vaccines.
EFFECT OF ACETYL-L-CARNITINE PRETREATMENT ON RADIATION PNEUMONITIS AND L-ARGININE-NO METABOLIC PATHWAY
Andrea Babicova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Zuzana Havlinova, Martina Rezacova, Klara Kubelkova, Jaroslav Chladek, Ales Tichy, Jirina Vavrova, Lenka Zarybnicka, Eva Novotna, Kamil Kuca, Zuzana Sinkorova
2012, 119 - 128
Purpose: The purpose of our study is to examine the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) pretreatment on radiation pneumonitis and L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) metabolic pathway after local chest irradiation.
Materials and methods: Female Wistar rats were pretreated with either phosphate buffer saline or ALC and locally irradiated by a dose of 15 Gy onto the chest. Samples were collected 7 weeks after irradiation. Exhaled NO was monitored using chemiluminiscence method. In plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and malondialdehyde were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Total protein concentration was assayed colorimetrically. In lungs, inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, eNOS), arginase (Arg) I and II, cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) 1, 2 and 3 relative mRNA expression were measured by RT-PCR. Expression of Arg I and II was also evaluated by Western blot. Histochemical analysis was used to measure air/tissue ratio and neutrophil infiltration.
Results: ALC pretreatment increased survival rate of irradiated rats. It also decreased NOx concentration in BAL, while in lungs, we observed increased air/tissue ratio, reduced neutrophil infiltration, decreased CAT 1 and CAT 3 mRNA expression, and reduced Arg I and Arg II expression.
Conclusions:ALC pretreatment improves clinical prognosis and seems to reduce intensity of post-radiation changes on a molecular and microscopic level.
SELECTIVE MONITORING OF ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE BY FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS WITH MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION
Vlastimil Dohnal, Lucie Dohnalova, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca
2013, 120 - 125
Flow injection analysis (FIA) is an analytical method where the reaction mixture is injected into flow of liquid. The reaction product is monitored by a suitable detector such as ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) spectrophotometric or electrochemical detector. Mass spectrometric detectors (MS) are coming to be a standard equipment of analytical laboratories in the present time. This work is focused on application of FIA-MS instrumentation for monitoring of Ellman’s reaction where both reactants (acetylthiocholine and 5,5’-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, DTNB) and the reaction product (5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid) are monitored. This reaction is usually used for monitoring of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Due to its simplicity, the developed method is generally applicable for monitoring of enzymatic reactions of cholinesterases. The main advantage of this method is high selectivity and reduction of influence of compounds, which are reacting with DTNB, resulting in a color product of Ellman’s reaction.
2014, 120 - 131
Uranium from the environment enters the human body by ingestion with food and drink and by inhalation of respirable airborne uranium-containing dust particles or aerosols. A 70 kg, non-occupationally exposed ’Reference Man’ living in Europe or in the United States has an estimated total body uranium content of about 22 micrograms. Uranium is absorbed from the intestine or the lungs, enters the bloodstream, and is rapidly deposited in the tissues, predominantly kidney and bone, or excreted into the urine. In the bloodstream, uranium is associated with red cells, and its clearance is relatively rapid. Renal toxicity is a major adverse effect of uranium, but the metal has toxic effects on the cardiovascular system, liver, muscle, and nervous system as well. Any possible direct risk of cancer or other chemical- or radiation-induced health detriments from uranium deposited in the human body is probably less than 0.005% in contrast to an expected indirect risk of 0.2% to 3% through inhaling the radioactive inert gas radon, which is produced by the decay of environmental uranium-238 in rocks and soil and is present in materials that are used to build dwellings and buildings where people live and work.
Jaroslav Kacerovsky, Ladislav Jebavy, Jan M. Horacek
2016, 121 - 129
The purpose of this work is to give a brief overview on history and main directions of work at the Department of Military Internal Medicine (DMIM). Chiefs (commanders) of the department are presented in chronological order together with tasks they had to deal with during a given period of time. A close cooperation of the DMIM with civilian hospital departments is pointed out, mainly in the areas of therapeutic and preventive care together with education. A departmental contribution to the development of the Military Medical Service is specified in detail, particularly surgical and non-surgical casualties support.
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA ON γ-RADIATION-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN MALE WISTAR RATS
Nwozo S. O., Yakubu O. F., Oyinloye B. E.
2013, 126 - 132
This study was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective potential of aqueous extract of seeds of Aframomum melegueta (A.M.) against gamma radiation-induced (6Gy) liver damage in male Wistar rats. Thirty male rats were randomly distributed into six groups of five animals each and aqueous extract of A.M. was administered at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg b. wt., orally for 2 weeks prior to irradiation and 4 weeks after irradiation, when they were sacrificed. The hepatic antioxidant status; reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined and histological examination was carried out. Exposure of animals to irradiation significantly increased LPO levels in comparison with the normal control group, reduced the level of GSH as well as CAT and GPx activity. On the other hand, there was a significant elevation in the activities of serum ALT and AST after irradiation exposure. Administration of aqueous extract of A.M. at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg before and after irradiation significantly decreased the elevated levels of LPO, restored GSH level near normal and enhanced CAT and GPx activities as well as significantly decreasing the elevated levels of serum ALT and AST activities. The histological examination and results from this study collectively indicate that aqueous extracts of A.M. could protect the liver from radiation-induced damage probably by enhancing the hepatic antioxidant defense mechanism in rats.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2015, 128 - 139
World War I was a conflict where chemical warfare was first used on a massive scale. The earliest chemical attack occurred on the Western Front in October 1914 in Neuve Chapelle, but its effects were so minimal that the Allies learned about it only after the war from German documents. The attack in the Bolimow area, carried out by the Germans against the Russian army with artillery shells containing gas T (xylyl and benzyl bromides), was therefore the first attack on a massive scale recorded on the victim side. The attack, which occurred after it, made it possible to obtain some tactical success, but without a strategic breakthrough. Some of the later German attacks on the Eastern Front where chlorine was used proved to be more effective, but despite many victims there was not any major strategic success achieved. The Russians did not take attempts to use chemical weapons in the World War I.
Jiri Patocka, Ramesh C. Gupta, Kamil Kuca
2011, 129 - 139
Anatoxin-a(s) is a guanidinemethyl phosphate ester isolated from the freshwater cyanobacterium (bluegreen algae) Anabaena flos-aquae strain NRC 525–17. Previous work has shown anatoxin-a(s) to be a potent irreversible inhibitor of electric eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 220.127.116.11). Anatoxin-a(s) has been shown to be an active site-directed inhibitor of AChE, which is resistant to reactivation by oximes because of the enzyme-oxime adduct formation. In vivo pretreatment with physostigmine and high concentrations of pyridine 2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) were the only effective antagonists against a lethal dose of anatoxin-a(s). Anatoxin-a(s) is very toxic and it is produced by cyanobacteria during its blooms. Purified toxin has an LD50 (i.p) of approximately 20-50 μg/kg body weight in mice. Toxicoses associated with cholinesterase-inhibiting anatoxin-a(s) have been observed in humans, animals, birds and fish. Anatoxina(s) induces clinical signs of hypercholinergic preponderance, such as salivation, lacrimation, urinary incontinence, defecation, convulsion, fasciculation, and respiratory arrest.
USING THE PIG’S BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE IMMOBILIZED ON A TEXTILE FIBER TO TEST THE ANTIDOTES OF NERVE AGENT POISONINGS – PART I
Ivana Moravcova, Jiri Cabal, Jitka Sandova
2012, 129 - 137
An integral part of the research and development of new antidotes against nerve agents (herein referred to as NAs) is the verification of their efficacy by means of in vitro tests. The purpose of these tests is to verify the ability of an antidote to protect cholinesterases from inhibition or to reactivate inhibited cholinesterases. For this purpose cholinesterases of different species and with a different degree of purification are traditionally used. Using immobilized cholinesterases proves to be new and advantageous for a number of reasons. The authors of the presented work verified the usability of Detehit detector (Oritest Praha Ltd) containing the pig’s brain acetylcholinesterase for this purpose. In this article we see the results of tests focused on verifying the effect of different reaction conditions on the activity of acetylcholinesterase, especially with regard to reproducibility of these measurements.
2016, 130 - 131
Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), also known as Gulf War Illness (GWI), is a long-term multi-symptom disorder which was described in military veterans and civilian workers who were employed in the first Gulf War (1990–1991). Out of approximately 700 000 soldiers who served in Operation Desert Storm (ODS), one-fourth to one-third (25–32%) of them reported symptoms corresponding to GWS. Medically unexplained symptoms have been reported among both civilians and military personnel involved in the combat. A wide range of acute and chronic symptoms have been linked to it, including fatigue, muscle pain, cognitive problems, rashes and diarrhea. Twenty-five years after the end of the fighting, the mystery of GWS ...
Vladimir Pavlik, Eva Drahokoupilova
2013, 133 - 134
Traditionally, the 16th national conference in a row on „Nutrition and Health“ with international participation was held in the spa house Beethoven in Teplice on 18 – 19 September, 2012. The Teplice conference is the largest home conference focused on nutrition hygiene and primary prevention referred to a food intake. This year 40 specialists from the Czech Republic and Slovakia participated there. Specialities were represented mainly by physicians, nutritional therapists and regional hygiene stations workers. The Czech Medical Association, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and the Health Institute located in Ústí nad Labem were in charge of organization of the conference. Within two conference days, 26 special oral presentations were delivered and 16 posters ...
2016, 133 - 136
Petra Maresova, Kamil Kuca
2014, 134 - 144
2013, 135 - 137
2012, 138 - 139
On the 1st July 2012 the Center for Transfer of Biomedical Technologies (CTBT) started its operation at the premisses of University Hospital Hradec Kralove. The center provides intellectual property protection assistance and other commercialization support to researchers of University Hospital Hradec Kralove and partner organizations – Faculty of Military Health Sciences of University of Defence, Faculty of Informatics and Management and Faculty of Science of University Hradec Kralove. CTBT links industrial partners interested in commercializing ...
2013, 138 - 138
2016, 138 - 138
Martin Jakl, Pavel Skorepa, Jan M. Horacek
2016, 139 - 146
2012, 140 - 140
Organophosphorous compounds are the basis of many insecticides and nerve agents. In military and first responder situations, organophosphorous (OP) poisoning is treated immediately with nerve agent antidote autoinjectors. The specific antidotes contained within these autoinjectors vary by country. In certain situations, such as severe exposure, skin exposure to low-volatility nerve agents and protracted low-dose exposure, there is a requirement for in-hospital care of OP nerve agent poisoned casualties. This treatment is more effectively carried out using...
WAR INJURIES FROM PAST TO PRESENT. (EDS.) V. SMRČKA, V. MÁDLOVÁ, KAROLINUM PRESS, PRAGUE,1ST EDITION, 2014, 178 PAGES, ISBN 978-80-246-2290-3.
2015, 140 - 141
COMPARISON OF POTENTIAL CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF SELECTED ANTIDOTES AGAINST ORGANOPHOSPHATES INHIBITING ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE
Hana Svobodova, Petr Jost, Rudolf Stetina
2011, 142 - 149
Organophosphorous compounds cause fatal intoxication based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, an essential enzyme of neurosynapses and neuromuscular junctions. There is an obvious need to develop appropriate treatment against them due to their application in agriculture and chemical industry or their misuse in terrorist or war attack.
In the Czech army some medicaments have been established to be used against this poisoning; Obidoxime, Methoxime, Atropine and Benactyzine. In present in vitro study we focused on potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effect evaluation of these drugs by the clonogenic and comet assay, respectively.
Obtained results show that oximes exhibit pronounced toxic effect, namely obidoxime in term of genotoxicity and methoxime in term of cytotoxicity.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2012, 142 - 163
Toxic alcohols that clinicians commonly encounter are ethylene glycol, methanol, and isopropanol. Adults ingest these either for suicidal intent or to achieve inebriation, since these substances are readily available and cheaper than alcohol. Nevertheless, assorted alcohols are used very often in many applications and any alcohol can be toxic if ingested in large enough quantities. Toxic alcohols discussed here include all saturated aliphatic alcohols containing from 1 to 6 carbons in their molecules.
Radek Sleha, Vanda Bostikova, Miloslav Salavec, Pavel Bostik, Eva Slehova, Rudolf Kukla, Petra Mosio, Marketa Vydrzalova, Jaroslava Mazurova
2013, 142 - 148
2015, 142 - 143
Mass disasters, whether caused by natural, industrial or other man-made events, require rapid mitigation of the resultant consequences, for which equally rapid, simple and proper communication is an essential prerequisite for multidisciplinary rescue teams from various fields. Such communication is the only means by which lives can be saved and further damages prevented. In today’s globalized world, wherein international co-operation in cases of mass disaster has become quite typical and necessary, the issue of inter-communication and understanding among teams has become all the more urgent. This also applies...
Daniel Kovar, Zdenek Voldrich, Pavel Voska, Jan Lestak, Eva Drahokoupilova
2014, 145 - 150
Dominika Coufalova, Eva Michalova, Borivoj Vojtesek, Lenka Hernychova
2015, 146 - 151
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange connected with mass spectrometry is increasingly applied for the interrogation of protein conformation, mapping protein dynamics, identification of protein-ligand interaction sites, and allosteric conformation changes. The dynamics of protein changes is determined with the m/z value of deuterated and non-deuterated protein or percentage of deuterium incorporation for the digested peptides. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange data are processed with selected software and finally quaternary structure of protein is visualized showing how different protein and ligand chains hook up with each other. Obtained results can help understand how protein interacts with its ligand and elucidate the role of this complex in a living organism. Utilization of this method is demonstrated by the amyloid-beta peptide aggregation associated with Alzheimer´s disease; determination of the structure toxin-co-regulated pili Vibrio cholerae in connection with its pathogenesis or revelation of binding sites on Mouse double minute 2 homolog complex with small molecule Nutlin-3 which is important for elucidation of drug effects in cancer research.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2016, 147 - 163
Lead (Pb), which is widely used in industry, is a common element found in low concentrations in the Earth’s crust. Lead has been used since prehistoric times. As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. This environmental contaminant causing irreversible health effects mainly in children. Especially children under the age of six are most at risk for lead poisoning. Lead toxicity causes hematological, gastrointestinal, and neurological dysfunction. Symptoms are usually noted with blood lead greater than 2 μmol/litre. Severe or prolonged exposure may also cause chronic nephropathy, hypertension, and reproductive impairment. Lead inhibits some enzymes, alters cellular calcium metabolism, stimulates synthesis of binding proteins in kidney, brain, and bone, and slows down nerve conduction. The emission sources and pathological effects of lead are discussed.
DETECTION OF 2-(DIALKYLAMINO)ETHANETHIOLS AND V-SERIES NERVE AGENTS IN WATER AND AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING FOLIN-CIOCALTEU REAGENT
Vladimir Pitschmann, Lukas Matejovsky, Zbynek Kobliha
2013, 149 - 155
A simple colorimetric tube detector for the detection of 2-(dialkylamino)ethanethiols and V-series nerve agents in water and in aqueous solutions is proposed. The detector is based on the reaction of the compounds with a chromogenic Folin-Ciocalteu reagent yielding a blue coloured reduction product. The detection limit of 2-(dialkylamino)ethanethiols is 2.5 mg/l, measurement range up to 250 mg/l. The detection limit of the V (VX) agent is 10 mg/l. The method allows V agents and their precursors and hydrolysis products to be easily distinguished from G-series nerve agents.
MULTIPLE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL BLAST INJURY IN CIVILIAN INDUSTRIAL SETTING – POSSIBLE PARALLEL TO THE BATTLEFIELD BLAST SYNDROME TYPE INJURIES
Leo Klein, Eduard Havel, Karel Smejkal, Jaroslav Cerman, Frantisek Hosek, Miloslav Hronek
2011, 150 - 158
A 43-year-old man, injured during a factory explosion on January 4, 2010, was transported to the nearest hospital. Volume resuscitation started, subclavian vein cannulation, chest tube, and covering of burns were performed. The intubated and ventilated patient was transferred by helicopter to our hospital. The leading diagnoses were: haemorrhagic – traumatic and burns shock, haemoperitoneum, pneumothorax, subtotal amputation of the left distal crus/feet, burns over 40 % of the body surface, right calcaneus fracture etc. Preliminary circulatory stabilisation with discontinuation of norepinephrine infusion was achieved within 10 hours, by excessive positive fluid balance, which took three days (22, 10 and 9 litres). Preliminary blood lactate 7 mmol/l was normalised within 24 hours. Blood albumin level 15 g/l was tolerated without any artificial replacement. The second hit appeared on day 10, in a form of septic shock caused by Aspergillus fumigatus infection from the lacerated left lower limb. High-volume continuous haemodiafiltration because of hyperpyrexia was used, after the exarticulation in the left knee-joint. An excessive proteolysis (urea loss more than 1000 mmol/day) persisted 1.5 months, with energy expenditure over 2600 kcal/day. The patient underwent multiple surgical interventions. Metabolic support using combined parenteral and enteral nutrition was performed during the first month, enteral nutrition combined with food were consequently given for more than 3 months. The patient was hospitalised until April 26, 2010. These types of traumas are fully comparable with military battlefield environment injuries. Principles of war surgery (life and limb saving, damage control surgery) should be applied also in civilian environment, particularly in disaster situations.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2014, 151 - 164
Many aldehydes are respiratory irritants which can cause inflammation or other adverse reactions in the respiratory system after being inhaled. Depending on the type and amount of irritant compound inhaled, victims can exhibit symptoms ranging from minor respiratory discomfort to acute airway and lung injury and even death. The lungs are susceptible to many airborne irritants. There are hundreds of substances that can pollute air and harm lungs. Aldehydes are just one type of airborne pollutants that can adversely affect lungs. Some of these agents may be directly toxic. They are also strong irritants for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. The vapor is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Aldehydes as acrolein or glutaraldehyde are also corrosive substances.
Vanda Bostik, Miloslav Salavec, Radek Sleha, Petr Prasil, Jan Marek, Ondrej Soukup, Kamil Kuca
2015, 152 - 165
Group of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) present a range of disorders from relatively moderately serious to human life threatening entities whose mortality reaches high levels. There are classified as acute viral febrile diseases characterized by nausea, myalgia and fatigue, dominating with general alteration of vessel permeability and regulation. Symptoms of bleeding often occur, particularly in severe cases which are usually diffuse and present a symptom of general vessel injury rather than life-threatening condition.
OPPOSITE TRENDS OF INCIDENCE OF GONORRHEA AND OTHER STIS IN THE EASTERN BOHEMIA DURING PAST 15 YEARS
Miloslav Salavec, Vanda Bostik, Petr Prasil, Jan Smetana, Miroslav Splino, Roman Chlibek, Miroslav Louda, Pavel Bostik
2013, 156 - 161
The epidemiology of selected venereal diseases in the Czech Republic has been carefully evaluated for many years. This report containing data from the period 1981-2011 from the eastern Bohemia shows a sharp decrease in the incidence of gonorrhea in 1993-1994 and very low incidence thereafter with slightly higher prevalence in males. However, syphilis and genitourinary infection by Chlamydia trachomatis show entirely opposite trends. Also, for the similar number of diagnostic tests performed, chlamydia showed 10 fold higher ratio of positive cases. This underscores the changing epidemiology of STIs and necessity for adapting the reporting algorithms.
Libor Pisa, Radoslav Krupka, Veronika Formankova, Vera Neubauerova, Jiri Dresler, Martin Hubalek
2011, 159 - 168
One of the key requirements of the biodefense system of the Czech Armed Forces is a capability to identify the biological warfare agents (BWA). In this regard the Central Military Health Institute that is responsible for the biodefense in the Czech Armed Forces took part in 10th Annual international comparative exercise of the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) military biological laboratories. The aim of this test was the identification of Bacillus anthracis in unknown samples which were contaminated by different disinfectants. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was chosen as optimal method for this exercise because of a robustness, speed and flexibility of this method. Due to the presence of a disinfectant the identification procedure could only be conducted after including an additional step to sample preparation. Tandem mass spectrometry was selected as a confirmatory method for the exercise. Our test result was in full agreement with the exercise design. This exercise confirmed that method of provisional identification deployable in mobile component of biodefense system of the Czech Armed Forces is sensitive and robust for use in the field conditions. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis confirmed PCR results and verified the valuable confirmatory role of mass spectrometry in the identification of biological agents.
Jiri Patocka, Kamil Kuca
2013, 162 - 171
The subjects of this article are cyclic alcohols with hydroxyl group bound directly to one carbon of the three- up to six-membered ring. They are thus predominantly secondary alcohols. These are substances frequently used as synthons in organic synthesis and many of them are important raw materials of chemical industry, such as cyclohexanol. Some cyclic alcohols were also found in nature, the bulk of them belong to the category of monoterpene substances. Many of them have biological activity, which is also discussed in this article.
FROM THE RESEARCH OF CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS TO THE EFFECTIVE THERAPY OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE/NERVE AGENT POISONING
Jiri Bajgar, Jiri Kassa
2012, 164 - 170
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to inform about different techniques used to improve treatment of nerve agents intoxication at the Department of Toxicology.
METHODS: Different methods are briefly mentioned and their importance for development of more effective reactivators is discussed.
RESULTS: Basic characterization of nerve agents and therapeutic drugs is necessary after literature survey. Usage of different techniques and properties of various reactivators are studied and, on this basis, the most effective ones are tested in details and proposed for practical use.
CONCLUSIONS: The results described in this study clearly demonstrate that for the development of new and more effective cholinesterase reactivators, a complex approach using different methodical attitudes is necessary.
Vanda Bostik, Radek Sleha, Miloslav Salavec, Sylva Janovska, Roman Chlibek, Pavel Blazek, Hana Stritecka, Vladislav Hytych, Kamil Kuca, Irena Hanovcova, Renata Sosovickova, Jan Smetana, Miroslav Splino, Jan Marek, Pavel Bostik
2016, 164 - 170
CHEMICAL WARFARE: PERSPECTIVES ON REACTIVATING THE ENZYME ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITED BY ORGANOPHOSPHATES
Juliana de O. S. Giacoppo, Willian E. A. de Lima, Kamil Kuca, Elaine F. F. da Cunha, Tanos C. C. França, Teodorico de C. Ramalho
2014, 165 - 177
It is known that nerve agents are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and, thus, transmission of nerve impulses. The process of AChE inhibition by nerve agents can be reversed by a nucleophile able to dephosphorylate the enzyme. In this sense, oximes exhibit this characteristic and are able to remove the neurotoxic and reactivate AChE. Here, we review experimental and theoretical results involving docking and quantum mechanical-molecular mechanics hybrid methods (QM/MM), using Molegro® and Spartan® softwares to analyze the interaction of different nerve agents and oximes with AChE and to evaluate kinetic constants of reactivation.
MONITORING OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHANGES IN THE ARMED FORCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC PERSONNEL DURING THE DEPLOYMENT IN AFGHANISTAN
Jan Psutka, Vladimír Pavlík, Jana Fajfrová, Miroslav Urban, Tomáš Halajčuk
2015, 166 - 169
The aim of the work is to describe the change of nutritional status and the change of physical activities in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic during the deployment on foreign missions in Afghanistan. As for anthropometric data, body weight, body mass index and the amount of visceral fat and muscle mass were monitored. In each monitored person the measurement was performed at least twice, the first one immediately after the beginning of the mission and the control one shortly before finishing the mission. Height was measured using a calibrated measuring device and body weight was weighed using a calibrated stand-on scale. BMI was calculated as BMI = weight / height2. The amount of total body fat was measured using Tanita BC-543 analyzer. After comparing individual contingents, statistically significant seems to be the Third Contingent, where a decrease of total body fat and visceral fat was observed. Similarly, statistically significant was the Fifth Contingent, where a decrease of body weight and BMI was observed. In the five monitored groups, which were measured in the Field Hospital in Kabul in the course of all four seasons of the year, some almost statistically significant changes of body composition, meaning a decrease of anthropometric characteristics, were registered. Only minimal statistical changes were registered in average values of all measured military professionals (n=251).
Eva Novotna, Ales Tichy, Karolina Foltanova, Jirina Vavrova
2011, 169 - 177
The integrity of the human genome is constantly threatened by exogenous or endogenous genotoxic agents that cause DNA damage. The ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered as the most deleterious forms of DNA damage which could lead to genomic instability and to cancer development, if left unrepaired. The DNA damage response (DDR) is comprised of a network of proteins that cooperate to regulate cell cycle progression and repair of DNA lesions. Our understanding of molecular basis of repair processes and of functions of repair proteins, as well as understanding of chromatin modifications may provide new possibilities in improvement of cancer management. Phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX at serine 139 (γ-H2AX) and formation of γ-H2AX repair foci seems to be the most sensitive DNA damage marker in the chromatin flanking the free DNA double-stranded ends in DSBs. Monitoring of γ-H2AX levels can serve for early indication of cancer development, as biomarker of cancer therapy efficiency or as a biodosimetric marker of radiation exposure.
Blanka Klimova, Kamil Kuca
2015, 170 - 176
Soldiers, particularly those involved in combat operations, are exposed to a continuous danger frequently resulting in various types of injuries, out of which the most common and serious is traumatic brain injury (TBI). Up to the second quarter of 2015, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center has recorded 333,169 cases of active soldiers affected with TBI. TBI can be defined as an injury that results from external force to the head and causes an alternation of loss of consciousness. The key symptoms of TBI comprise physical problems, sensory impairments, behavioral changes, cognitive disorders, communication difficulties, and swallowing disorders. The purpose of this study is to review available studies on TBI among active military personnel with special focus on communication disorders. The methods applied for this study include a method of literature review of both clinical and review studies relevant for the researched issue in the acknowledged databases and a method of comparison and evaluation of their findings. The findings show that the research studies exploring communication disorders among the active military personnel are rare. In addition, earlier diagnosis of TBI is needed as well as a multidisciplinary team intervention approach to the treatment of TBI.
Jan Misik, Eva Vodakova, Ruzena Pavlikova, Jiri Cabal, Ladislav Novotny, Kamil Kuca
2012, 171 - 176
Detergent-based mixtures and pure surfactants used as decontaminants in mass casualty scenarios were investigated for their acute 24 h toxicity. Commercial detergents NeodekontTM, ArgosTM, DermogelTM, and FloraFreeTM were tested in male Wistar rats after percutaneous, peroral and intramuscular administration. Pure surfactants althosan MB, sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate, triton X, benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride, and N-dodecyl pyridinium bromide were investigated in male ICR mice. Estimated LD50 of surfactants varied from < 100 mg.kg-1 (i.m.) to more than 2000 mg.kg-1 (p.o, p.c.) in mice. All detergents tested in rats were rather less toxic (LD50 > 6 ml.kg-1), thus could be considered as safe if used as external skin decontaminant or if low volume is accidentally ingested.
Jiri Patocka, Eugenie Nepovimova, Kamil Kuca
2016, 171 - 181
Short-chain unsaturated aliphatic alcohols exist as volatile liquids, some of them are used in both industrial and non-industrial environments, and some of them are natural products of different organisms. These alcohols very often work as semiochemicals, including acting as pheromones, attractants, repellents, etc.. Long-chain poly-unsaturated alcohols are often toxic principals of certain plants, thereby presenting a risk to humans.
Romana Jelinkova, Emil Halamek, Zbynek Kobliha
2013, 172 - 179
Ales Tichy, Kamila Durisova, Eva Novotna, Lenka Zarybnicka, Jirina Vavrova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Zuzana Sinkorova
2012, 177 - 187
This review describes a drug target for cancer therapy, family of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), and it gives a comprehensive review of recent information. Besides general information about phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase superfamily, it characterizes a DNA-damage response pathway since it is monitored by PIKKs.
Vanda Bostik, Miloslav Salavec, Radek Sleha, Petr Prasil, Jan Marek, Ondrej Soukup, Kamil Kuca
2015, 177 - 181
Vendula Sepsova, Jana Zdarova Karasova, Filip Zemek, Brian J. Bennion, Kamil Kuca
2011, 178 - 186
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators (oximes) are generally used as antidotes in case of nerve agent poisoning. Because of their affinity to AChE, they may also act as weak inhibitors of AChE. Their inhibition potency against AChE was determined by an in vitro method based on the interaction between AChE and oxime reactivator in the concentration range 10-1 to 10-8 M. We used eel AChE for these assays. We found that AChE inhibition strongly depends on the oxime structure. The aim of the present study is to describe the structure-activity relationship (SAR) between oxime structure and inhibition of AChE. AChE reactivators tested include both monoquaternary and bisquaternary structures with the oxime group in different positions on the pyridine ring and with changes in the connecting linker in the case of the bisquaternary compounds. We found AChE inhibition to be highest in bisquaternary oximes that have a longer linker length and have the oxime group in the ortho position. Increased AChE inhibition in monoquaternary oximes was highest when the meta position was occupied by the oxime nucleophile. In addition, different substituents in the connecting chain (in case of bisquaternary oximes) modulated their inhibition potency.
POLYMER THERAPEUTICS FOR TREATMENT OF VIRAL INFECTIONS SUCH AS EBOLA – HOW TO TEACH NEW TRICKS TO AN OLD DOG? A HYPOTHESIS.
2014, 178 - 182
Polymer drug delivery systems were during last few decades proven to be efficient potential therapeutics for cancer treatment, especilly for the treatment of solid tumors, where they may take advantage of the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect for tumor-specific passive accumulation. Controlled release of anticancer drugs in cancer cells may be triggered by. e.g., cathepsin B activation after endocytosis. Endosomal proteases, especially cathepsins B and L, are known to be one of the key factors influencing some viral infections. For instance Ebola virus requires partial proteolysis of its surface glycoprotein for efficient endosome escape within its life cycle. We hypothesize that polymeric cathepsin B and L inhibitors may utilize advantages of polymer delivery systems for more effective treatment of viral infections with cathepsin inhibitors reducing systemic toxicity and increasing efficacy by targeted delivery of these inhibitors.
Petronela Imreova, Eva Miadokova, Eliska Galova, Stephka Chankova, Ivan Chalupa
2013, 180 - 184
Hyperforin is a prenylated phloroglucinol derivative which occurs in the plant Hypericum perforatum L. It has several medicinally important properties (antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, antibacterial and antiangiogenic). To enable its medicinal use, it is necessary to investigate its potential genotoxic effect on human cell lines. We also observed an anticlastogenic effect of hyperforin towards the indirect mutagen benzo(a)pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene is a widespread polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. We performed experiments on human tumor cell line HepG2, using the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test. We investigated two cytogenic parameters: the number of aberrant metaphases and the total number of chromosome aberrations. We found out that hyperforin was not genotoxic on human cell line HepG2. The second part of our results implies that hyperforin had an anticlastogenic effect against the indirect mutagen benzo(a)pyrene in our experimental conditions. In future we will continue our research by using another range of hyperforin concentrations, other cell lines and other chemical mutagens.
2015, 182 - 185
It was with interest and pleasure that I read the contribution of Petronilho & Figueroa-Villaret in the MMSL reviewing the literature on agents for defense against chemical warfare [Petronilho & Figueroa-Villaret, 2015]. The authors briefly touch on the history of organophosphates emphasizing the pioneering contribution of Jean Louis Lassaigne, the synthesis of triethyl- phosphate (TEP) and finally the achievements of Philippe de Clermont who codeveloped the first organophosphate (OP) acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEEP). They continue by pointing out that Wilson and Ginsburg managed to reactivate OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase using pralidoxime (2 -PAM), which reactivates the enzyme much faster than hydroxylamine. I believe that the scientists involved in organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor & reactivator development deserve more attention and that the colleagues’ contribution contains a number of ambiguities deserving additional...
2016, 182 - 185
IGOR LINHART: TOXICOLOGY. INTERACTIONS OF NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES WITH LIVING ORGANISMS, THEIR MECHANISMS, MANIFESTATIONS AND EFFECTS. 2ND AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTED EDITION. UNIVERSITY OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY IN PRAGUE, 2014, 412P. ISBN 978-80-7080-87
2014, 183 - 183
The publishing house of the University of Chemical Technology in Prague published in a short time (first edition in 2012) amended and supplemented second edition of the Toxicology textbook. A chapter newly included in the second edition discusses the toxicity of some common chemical reagents and solvents and the risks to health and the environment which is or may be associated with work in chemical laboratories. The author of the textbook is assoc. prof. Ing. Igor Linhart, Ph.D., one of the prominent Czech...
Alzbeta Kracmarova, Lucie Bartosova, Jana Zdarova-Karasova, Filip Zemek, Jiri Bajgar
2013, 185 - 188
The objective of the experiment was to verify that HI-6 dimethanesulphonate (HI-6 DMS) is able to penetrate the skin in amounts sufficient to protect against organophosphate poisoning using a rat model. HI-6 2Cl is a major component of Transant, a transdermal patch, used as a protective agent against organophosphate intoxication in the Czech and Slovak armies, although there is little evidence that HI-6 would penetrate the skin in sufficient amounts. HI-6 DMS at a total amount of 127 mg or 635 mg was applied as a buffer solution on the Transant patch which was fixed on the back of the rat. Two, seven or twenty-four hours later, rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected to determine the levels of HI-6 in plasma by HPLC on reversed phase with isocratic elution and UV/VIS detection. HI-6 was not detectable in plasma samples of animals exposed to 127 mg of HI-6 DMS. The highest levels of HI-6 (20.6 ± 18.8 ng/ml) were found in plasma of animals exposed to 635 mg of HI-6 DMS 2 hours after patch application, whereas after 7 or 24 hours the levels were very low. Based on these results, the ability of HI-6 DMS to penetrate the skin is discussed and some possibilities of improving the transdermal penetration are suggested.
2015, 186 - 188
Tularemia is an epizootic infection caused by Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis). Tularemia is mainly a disease of wild animals that is transmitted to humans by contaminated environment or ectoparasites. Any age, sex, or race is universally susceptible to infection. Infection is incidental and is usually a result of interaction with biting or blood-sucking insects, wild animals, or their environment. F. tularensis is an etiologic agent of tularemia and, with rare exception, the only disease produced by this genus. The organism is a small, Gram-negative, pleomorphic, nonmotile, nonspore-forming coccobacillus. It is a strict aerobe that infects the host as a facultative, intracellular bacterium. The two main biovars, F. tularensis biovar tularensis (Type A) and F. tularensis biovar holarctica (Type B) exist. Type A produces the more serious disease in humans with an untreated fatality rate of approximately 5% and is found in the North American...
THE 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CBRNE - RESEARCH & INNOVATION, LYON FRANCE, MAY 29TH TO JUNE 1ST 2017
2016, 186 - 187
2011, 187 - 188
The 11th Conference of the Society of Military Physicians, Pharmacists and Veterinarians took place at the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence, in Hradec Králové, on the 18th and 19th October, 2011. The Society is a member of the Czech J. E. Purkinje Medical Association.
The main topics of the Conference were a) progress in diagnostics and treatment-procedures by military physicians engaged in primary care or practising in medical establishments b) practical problems of organization and command- and - control within the Service c) scientific activities and research in military health-care d) latest experiences in foreign missions e) selected casereports of special interest.
Altogether, 23 oral presentations and 13 posters were delivered. Presentations on the ethos behind the formation and development of the Military Medical ...
2012, 188 - 189
It has previously been shown that in methanolinduced toxic optic neuropathy with absolute blindness, recovery is rare, and almost never happens fully (1, 2). In other words, we have shown that after general management of acute methanol intoxication, patients with methanolinduced blindness can be grouped into three categories; 1: patients who are blind at the time of discharge and partially recover within a maximum of 3–4 weeks; 2: patients who are blind at the time of discharge and gain no improvement in their vision; and 3: patients who are blind at the time of discharge, partially recover within a few days to approximately 1 month, and experience reduced vision and blindness after about a maximum of 9 months (2) ...
2015, 189 - 192
A report about experiences gained during a month internship at the Queen Astrid Military Hospital Burns Centre in Brussels, Belgium, in May 2015.
THE 12th CONFERENCE OF THE SOCIETY OF MILITARY PHYSICIANS, PHARMACISTS AND VETERINARIANS OF THE CZECH MEDICAL ASSOCIATION OF J.E. PURKINJE IN HRADEC KRÁLOVÉ
2012, 190 - 191
The main topics of the Conference were current issues in the Military Medical Service organization and management, progress in diagnostics and therapy in military general practitioners and in hospital facilities, scientific and research work in military healthcare, latest experience in foreign missions and in pre-deployment training. In total 34 oral presentations were delivered and 15 high-quality posters were displayed. The latest news related to formation and development of the ACR Military Medical Service contemporary concept, particularly in consideration of economic restrictions on public budget, and about the Czech Armed Forces reform, attracted the close attention of all participants.
2013, 190 - 190
Main topics of the conference: Emergency and disaster planning and preparation, Disaster medicine – international experience, Major incidents and IRS drills – case studies, Current threats and risks, Ethnic, humanitarian and psycho-social aspects of major incidents, Pre-hospital and hospital emergency care – new trends, Preparation of health-care facilities for major incidents, Education, professional training and competence, Disaster medicine research, CBRNE, Catastrophe impact reduction, Civil and military aspects of disaster medicine.
2013, 191 - 192
On the 20th September, 2013, Czech medical community received a very sad announcement of the death of Professor Radana Königová, a prominent personality in the Czech medicine and whole society, respected authority within the international burns and medical societies. She passed away in the hospital where she had worked for more than 51 years, until the very last days, before orthopedic surgery she had had to undergo. Unfortunately, she did not return to her “second home”, the Prague...